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研究生:許惟翔
研究生(外文):Hsu, Wei Hsiang
論文名稱:從共同創造到共同服務:以網際網路的脈絡為基礎之研究
論文名稱(外文):From Co-creation to Co-service: In the Context of the World Wide Web
指導教授:溫肇東溫肇東引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen, Jordan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:科技管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:協作眾包群眾服務共同創造
外文關鍵詞:CollaborationCrowdsourcingCrowdservicingCo-creation
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網際網路在過去二十年內成為了最具影響力的科技之一,並引發了快速的經濟與環境的成長和轉變。新的協做行為不斷地從這樣的迅速的成長與轉變中出現並輔住著這樣的成長與轉變。共同創造便是如此的協作方式之一。該協作行為藉由了網際網路茁壯並轉變了經濟與環境。然而,一個新的協作行為正在網際網路中崛起,但目前仍未有足夠的研究專注於研究該協作行為。
本研究從崛起中的群眾服務 (Crowdservicing) 模式中辨識出了這個新的協作行為。群眾服務是被認定為是群包(Crowdsourcing) 模式,一種藉由共同創造 (co-creation) 行為為基礎的協作模式,的下一個進化模式。本研究借取服務為創造的下一個步驟來將這個新的協作行為命名為共創服務(co-service)。本研究將以網際網路脈絡為基礎研究架構來建立對共同服務的認識,並將引用群眾服務與群包作為共同創造與共同服務在網際網路上的反射。本研究將著重於找出共同創造與共同服務的不同,也將找出從共同創造行為變遷到共同服務的行為的重要過程。此外,本研究希望能透過對於共同創造行為可能的進化行為的研究提供管理階層與商業機構對於協作行為上更多的認識。
本研究發現共同創造與共同服務可藉由許多性質上的不同作出辨別,當中包括:協作的純度、參與協作方的協作架構、協作方與協作方以及與平台之間的關係、價值創造與消費的重覆 (iteration) 性、對於社交與經驗價值創造的注重性、以及集體協作 (Collective Collaboration) 與連結協作 (Connection Collaboration) 之間遞迴的反覆性。本研究另外也發現從共同創造變遷到共同服務的關鍵因素為 (Collective Collaboration) 與連結協作 (Connection Collaboration) 之間遞迴反覆的可能性。不僅如此,協作的環境必須給協作方有效與透明的溝通橋樑。最後,從價值創造的轉變到價值創造與消費之間的重覆將能讓共同創造行為轉變至共同服務行為因為更多價值將能夠提供更多的轉變動機。

Over the past two decades, the World Wide Web has become one of the most influential technologies that supported rapid progression and transformation in the economy and environment. New forms of collaborative practices from and support such rapid progression and transformation are constantly emerging on the World Wide Web. Co-creation is one of such collaborative practices that thrived with the support from the World Wide Web and have transformed the economy and environment. A new form of collaborative practices is emerging from the World Wide Web; however, there have not been many studies that focus on this new form of collaborative practice.
This research has identified a new form of collaborative practice from an emerging concept of crowdservicing. Crowdservicing is regarded as the next evolutionary step to crowdsourcing, a mass application of co-creation on the World Wide Web. This research named this new form of collaborative practice co-service borrowing from the concept that service is the next step to creation. This research aims to establish an understand of co-service within the context of the World Wide Web by citing crowdsourcing, crowdservicing as possible reflections of co-creation and co-service on the World Wide Web. Mainly, this research aims to identify the distinguishing differences between co-creation and co-service as well as the transition procedure from co-creation to co-service. This research also aims to provide insights for managements and businesses regarding on this next possible evolutionary collaborative practice after co-creation.
This research has found that co-creation and co-service can be distinguished through many characteristics including: collaboration purity, organization structure of participating agent, relationship between participating agents and the platform, value creation and consumption iteration, social and experience value creation emphasis, and recursive collective and connective collaboration iterations. This research also discovered that the key factor enabling the co-creation and co-service transition is enabling recursive iterations between collective and connective collaboration. Furthermore, the collaboration environment must enable communication channels that are both effective and transparent. Finally, a change from value creation to an iteration of value creation and consumption will enable a transition from co-creation to co-service since the incentive of more value will be present.

Chapter 1: Introduction....................................1
1.1. Research Motivation.................................1
1.2. Research Objectives.................................5
1.3. Research Question...................................6
1.4. Research Flow.......................................7
Chapter 2: Literature Review...............................8
2.1 The Web as a Techno-Social System....................8
2.1.1. Cognition.......................................8
2.1.2. Communication...................................9
2.1.3. Cooperation....................................10
2.1.4. Collaboration..................................11
2.1.5. Collective versus Connective...................13
2.2. Collaborative Practices............................14
2.2.1. Co-creation....................................14
2.2.2. Co-service.....................................21
2.3. Defining Change: Transition versus Transformation..24
2.4. Evolving and Developing Phases of the Web..........25
2.4.1. Web 1.0........................................26
2.4.2. Web 2.0........................................27
2.4.3. Web 3.0........................................31
2.4.4. Web 2.5........................................35
2.5. Mass Application of Collaborative Practices
on the Web.........................................37
2.5.1. Mass Application of Collaborative Practices
on Web 2.0.....................................37
2.5.2. Mass Application of Collaborative Practices
on Web 3.0.....................................37
Chapter 3: Research Methodology...........................39
3.1 Research Framework..................................39
3.2. Research Variables.................................40
3.3. Research Design....................................42
3.3.1. Research Method................................42
3.3.2. Data Collection................................43
3.3.4. Research Limitations...........................45
Chapter 4: Data Collection and Derivation.................46
4.1. The Relationship between Co-creation and the Web...46
4.2. Identifying a Common Understanding of Co-service...47
4.2.1. Co-service as a Collaborative Practice.........47
4.2.2. Co-service in a Techno-social System...........51
4.2.3. Co-service and the Phases of the Web...........52
4.2.4. Implication of Co-service......................54
4.3. Crowdsourcing and Crowdservicing...................54
4.3.1. Relationship between Crowdsourcing and
Crowdservicing.................................55
4.3.2. Supporting Secondary Case Study................58
Chapter 5: Research Analysis and Discussion...............66
5.1. Understanding Co-service...........................66
5.1.1. Co-service as a Collaborative Practice.........66
5.1.2. Applying Co-service in the Web.................70
5.2. Collaborative Practice Paradigm Shift in the Web...70
5.2.2. Changes in the Collaborative Practice
Environment....................................72
5.2.3. Shifting from Crowdsourcing to Crowdservicing..74
5.3. Toward an Integral Understanding of Co-creation
and Co-service.....................................75
5.3.1. Differentiating Co-creation and Co-service.....75
5.3.2. From Co-creation to Co-service.................80
Chapter 6: Conclusion and Suggestions.....................81
6.1. Answering the Research Questions...................81
6.2. Implications of Research...........................82
6.3. Future Works.......................................84
References................................................85
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