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研究生:余姿幸
研究生(外文):Yu, Tzu Hsing
論文名稱:從眼動證據探究閱聽中文形聲字之音形映照
論文名稱(外文):Eye movement evidence for Phonological to orthographic mapping when reading and listening Chinese Phonograms
指導教授:蔡介立蔡介立引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai, Jie Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:形聲字音形一致性效果同音字密度效果眼動口語理解-視覺典範音形映照
外文關鍵詞:PhonogramsP-O consistency effectHomophone density effectEye movementVisual world paradigmPhonological to orthographic mapping
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語言系統中,形音之間的映照關係為一持續受到探討的議題。本篇論文旨在利用眼動閱讀實驗以及口語理解─視覺典範深入探究閱聽中文形聲字時,音形映照之存在性及其時序歷程。
本文進行兩個眼動實驗。實驗一旨在探究視覺的閱讀歷程中,中文的音形映照於詞彙層次和次詞彙層次之歷程及影響。結果顯示,同音字密度效果未達顯著,但音形對應一致性效果於晚期眼動指標中顯著呈現。顯示出音形映照於視覺詞彙辨識的晚期產生影響,並證實語音表徵和字形表徵於視覺處理中是互為雙向影響之觀點,實驗一結果並支持音至形的反向連結映照於視覺模式中具有其重要性。實驗二主要使用口語理解─視覺典範,進一步探究並檢驗音形映照於口語詞彙辨識過程中之時序及歷程。結果顯示,音形對應一致性效果於早期眼動指標中顯著呈現,隨後同音字密度效果於晚期眼動指標中顯著呈現。此研究結果支持雙向交互激發模型(BIAM)之假設,顯示詞彙辨識機制中,存在字音和字形表徵之間的動態交互連結;並證實字形表徵於口語詞彙辨識過程中時序性的影響。
整體而論,本研究整合形音映照之概念所衍生出的形音一致性效果及同音字密度效果,就視、聽兩種模式之眼動實驗,檢視音形映照歷程,並進一步提供音形映照的實驗證據,探究其於中文語言系統的文字辨識歷程中之影響力與重要性。

The present study aims to examine the states of phonological to orthographic (P-O) mappings when reading and listening Chinese phonograms. Two eye tracking experiments regarding to visual and auditory modalities were conducted to explore the intrinsic nature and the temporal dynamics of P-O mappings in Chinese word recognition.
Experiment 1 manipulated homophone density and P-O consistency to investigate the involvement of P-O mappings at lexical and sublexical levels during the reading process. The result of Experiment 1 revealed that the P-O consistency effect was evident in second-pass eye movement indices of total viewing time (TVT) and rereading rate (RRR), demonstrating a late occurrence of P-O consistency effect at a the verification stage in reading. The occurrence of P-O consistency is in accordance with the view that the phonological information and orthographic representation are activated in a bidirectional flow, which implies that the mappings from phonology to orthography were guaranteed during the reading process.
Experiment 2 utilizes visual world paradigm to explore the P-O mappings in auditory modality and further inspect the temporal dynamic in listening Chinese spoken characters. The result demonstrated that the P-O consistency effect emerged approximately 300 ms earlier than the homophone density effect, reflecting the early P-O consistency effect and the relatively late HD effect during the temporal stage of spoken word recognition. The result also supports the bidirectional activation of orthographic and phonological codes during word recognition, demonstrating the notion that the dynamic influences of orthography representation on spoken word recognition are ubiquitous at both sub-lexical and lexical levels.

Acknowledgements IV
List of Tables IX
List of Figures X
Chinese Abstract XI
English Abstract XIII

Chapter 1
Introduction 1
1.1 General Background 1
1.2 Research Questions 8

Chapter 2
Literature Review 10
2.1 Two-way mapping between orthographic and phonological
representations 10
2.1.1 The bidirectional nature of consistency 10
2.1.2 Construction of P-O consistency effect 12
2.1.2.1 P-O consistency in visual modality 12
2.1.2.2 P-O consistency in auditory modality 18
2.2 The Processing of word recognition - Bimodal
interaction activation model 22
2.3 O-P and P-O consistency effects in Chinese 25
2.4 Eye movement recording technique 33

Chapter 3
Experiment One: P-O mappings of Chinese character in
sentence reading 41
3.1 Method 42
3.1.1 Participants 42
3.1.2 Materials and Design 43
3.1.3 Apparatus 46
3.1.4 Procedure 47
3.2 Data analysis of eye movements 48
3.3 Result 49
3.3.1 Target word region 49
3.3.2 Pre-target region 51
3.3.3 Post-target region 53
3.4 Discussion 54

Chapter 4
Experiment Two: P-O mappings of Chinese character in spoken
word recognition 58
4.1 Method 60
4.1.1 Participants 60
4.1.2 Material and Design 60
4.1.2.1 Recording 62
4.1.2.2 Recognition pretest 62
4.1.3 Layout of visual stimuli 63
4.1.4 Apparatus 63
4.1.5 Procedure 64
4.2 Results 65
4.3 Discussion 70

Chapter 5
General Discussion 74
5.1 Interactivity between phonology and orthography 74
5.1.1 The role of P-O mapping in visual 74
5.1.2 The role of P-O mappings in auditory 76
5.2 Dynamic nature of P-O mappings in visual modality and
auditory modality 78
5.3 Suggestions for future research 80


Reference 88
Appendixes 88
A.Experiment materials of Experiment 1 88
B.Experiment materials of Experiment 2 91


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