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研究生:李儼峰
研究生(外文):Yen-Feng Lee
論文名稱:牛泰勒氏錐蟲Trypanosoma theileri分離及哺乳類細胞胞內感染期之確認
論文名稱(外文):Isolation and identification of intracellular stages of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri in mammalian cells
指導教授:董光中董光中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kwong-Chung Tung
口試委員:何素鵬費昌勇周世認
口試日期:2012-12-05
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:獸醫學系暨研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:泰勒氏錐蟲胞內感染
外文關鍵詞:Trypanosoma theilericell invasion
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泰勒氏錐蟲(Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri)是一種牛隻的血液寄生蟲,雖然它廣泛出現於世界各地,但在台灣尚未有人報導。本研究在檢查發燒乳牛的血液時發現該檢體雖然於直接血液抺片並無任何發現,但將此血液檢體接種於幼倉鼠腎臟細胞(baby hamster kidney cell;BHK cell)後於培養液中出現錐蟲各個時期的形態,顯微觀察下亦可見錐蟲的主要特徵胞器。將此錐蟲以T. theileri種別特異診斷聚合酶鏈反應(species-specific PCR assay,Tth625)和18S RNA基因加以增幅,此增幅核酸產物經定序確認為泰勒氏錐蟲T. theileri,這是首次在台灣確認本蟲,將此分離株定名為TWTth1。在基因親緣關係分析發現,TWTth1以轉錄間隔區(internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal genes;ITS)基因作為演化生物標記分析時,結果與一個日本分離株和兩個巴西分離株 100% 相同,而以組織蛋白酶(cathepsin L-like cysteine protease;CATL)基因分型則屬於TthIB genotype基因型。TWTth1可被週期性繼代培養於單層細胞超過一年,且冷凍保存存活率良好。泰勒氏錐蟲被發現至今雖已逾百年,但在牛隻體內的生活史卻鮮有報導,特別是否造成胞內感染仍無研究提及。本研究發現TWTth1與吞噬細胞和不具吞噬性的哺乳類細胞共同培養時,不但會附著到細胞表面,還會進一步侵入到細胞當中,透過本實驗室自行生產的TWTth1特異性抗體以及細胞胞器螢光染劑追蹤檢測,更加確立蟲體存在於細胞質內。深入檢視錐蟲侵入細胞過程可能涉及的一連串機制中發現,首先細胞膜脂筏(membrane lipid rafts)及明膠分解酵素聚集於蟲體貼附細胞膜處,顯示其與蟲體感染有關。以胞器活體螢光追蹤搭配共軛焦顯微鏡觀察發現細胞的溶素體(lysosome)和自噬體(autophagosome)形成也參與其中;再者,以組織培養感染泰勒氏錐蟲活體時可以誘發細胞內鈣離子濃度瞬變,以及乙型腫瘤生長因子(TGF-β)增加來協助感染。實驗證實TWTth1在哺乳類細胞確實具有胞內感染期,且進行細胞侵入時需利用到錐蟲本身和宿主細胞的不同組成分子,而這些分子及其相關機轉亟待將來深入研究。

Although Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri, a blood parasite of bovid species, is spread widely throughout the world, it has never been reported in Taiwan. When an anti-coagulated blood sample from febrile dairy cattle was directly smeared, no parasite was observed. However, a highly distinctive morphological feature of trypanosome appeared in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cell culture inoculated with non-thrown blood buffy coat. The different stages and typical ultrastructures of trypanosome were observed in our isolate. The isolate was subsequently identified as T. theileri by species-specific PCR assay (Tth625), 18S rDNA sequencing alignment and internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal genes (ITS) and cathepsin L-like cysteine protease as markers for molecular phylogenetic analysis. The first T. theileri isolate in Taiwan (TWTth1) could be periodically passaged in BHK cell culture for more than one year and retained good re-cryopreservation viability. The BHK culture method would be excellent for diagnostic isolation and maintenance long-term development of this parasite. T. theileri was first identified over one hundred years ago, and is a widespread parasite in cattle. Its life cycle within the mammalian host has rarely been reported. Whether there is an intracellular stage in tissues is unknown and such a stage has not been demonstrated experimentally. Intriguingly, using Giemsa staining with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examination, we found that the parasite was able not only to attach to cells but also to invade several phagocytic and non-phagocytic mammalian cells. Based on these findings, we conducted further investigations using a special antibody in immunofluorescence confocal images. Moreover, we examined a series of possible events of cell invasion in T. theileri. The results revealed that GM1, a marker of membrane lipid rafts, was implicated in the mechanism of entry by this parasite. After incubation with tissue culture trypomastigotes, the gelatinolytic activity was significantly increased and accumulated at the attachment sites. Using ultrastructural localization detection by CytoTracker live imaging and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that lysosome fusion and the autophagy pathway were engaged in invaginating processes. T. theileri amastigotes also invaded cells and were enclosed by the lysosomes. Furthermore, tissue-cultured trypomastigotes were found to be capable of triggering intracellular free Ca2+ transients and TGF-β-signaling. Our findings that intracellular amastigote stages exist in mammalian cells infected with T. theileri and that the invasion processes involved various host cell components and cell signalings were extremely surprising and warrant further investigation.

中文摘要 ……………………………..…….…………………. i
Abstract …………………..…………................. ii
目次 .…………………………………………………………... iv
圖表目次 .………………………………………………..……. vi
第一章 緒論 .………………………………………..……... 1
第一節 前言 …………………………………………………………....... 1
 第二節 文獻探討 ....………………………….…………. 2
  一、泰勒氏錐蟲於生物學上的分類 ……………..……… 2
  二、錐蟲的基因體組成 …………………………………. 2
  三、錐蟲的構造…………………………………………….. 4
  四、泰勒氏錐蟲宿主範圍及地理分佈 …………………. 4
  五、錐蟲的各個分化階段 ……………………………….. 5
  六、泰勒氏錐蟲的增殖 ………………………….……… 7
  七、錐蟲生活史 ………………….................... 9
  八、泰勒氏錐蟲之分離培養 ……….…………………. 12
 第三節 研究目的與假說 .……………………………….… 13
第二章 自台灣田間飼養之乳牛分離鑑定牛泰勒氏錐蟲 ….. 15
 第一節 前言 .………………………………………………. 15
 第二節 材料與方法 .…………………………………….… 16
 第三節 結果 .…………………………….…………….... 19
 第四節 討論 .…………………………………………….… 22
第三章 胞內感染假說求證及其機轉探討
牛泰勒氏錐蟲對非吞噬性哺乳類細胞胞內感染之研究 32
第一節 前言 .…………………………………………………. 32
 第二節 材料與方法 …………………………………...... 34
 第三節 結果 …………………………………..…………… 40
 第四節 討論 ………………………….................. 45
第四章 總結論 ………….……………………………………. 69
第五章 參考文獻 .……………………………………………. 71
第六章 個人相關研究發表清單 ………………………………. 80


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