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研究生:李承翰
研究生(外文):Lee, Cheng-Han
論文名稱:應用粒子群演算法於聯合補貨問題
論文名稱(外文):Using Particle Swarm Optimization for Joint Replenishment Problem
指導教授:康鶴耀
指導教授(外文):Kang, He-Yau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立勤益科技大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:52
中文關鍵詞:自行車聯合補貨問題供應鏈管理粒子群演算法混和整數規劃
外文關鍵詞:bikejoint replenishment problemsupply chain managementparticle swarm optimizationmixed integer programming
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由於全球暖化受到重視、油價飆漲及環保節能意識抬升,使得自行車產業廣受歡迎。在這波自行車風潮下,臺灣廠商除了在既有的領域擴大生產並更精進其技術外,其他如零件廠、研發創新部門亦開發新產品及技術,來符合人們需求。「綠能產業」當道的時代,自行車領域未來的發展,主要在車架的耐久性、客製化、精巧與攜帶方便外,電動自行車將是繼太陽能與LED後的下一個「綠能」新寵兒。然而,全球最大自行車零件廠日本島野出貨不順,且歐盟及日本相繼提升自行車品質及安全規範,種種因素使製造成本大幅增加,對出口大國的臺灣有顯著的影響,因此上游供應商的選擇與製造成本的下降,是自行車產業需重視的議題。
自行車產業面對產品需求多樣少量與全球競爭的環境中,如何對多供應商分別擬定適當的補貨訂購策略、降低存貨、總成本極小化及利潤極大化,是刻不容緩的議題。本計畫在探討聯合補貨問題,主要是說明「單一訂購商向多家供應商購買多種零件」的聯合訂購方式,有別於以往研究只考慮訂購成本及存貨成本,本研究更加入運輸成本、採購成本,建立最小化總成本為目標的規劃模型,做為廠商在物料配置時的參考。首先,制定出一套混和整數規劃數學模式來求最佳解,萬一變數或限制條件過多,則很難得到合理解的規劃甚至NP-hard;其次使用粒子群演算法,加上人類社會資訊分享的概念,提供群聚中的粒子互相溝通與資訊交流的機制來搜尋近似最佳解。

Because of the increasing concern in global warming, oil price soaring and eco-awareness, biking has become very popular. With the fashionable trend of bikes, factories in Taiwan are expanding productions in the original field and are enhancing their technologies. Moreover, parts companies and R&;D departments are also developing new products and technologies to meet customer demands. In the age of green energy industry, the development of bikes currently focuses on the durability of frame, customization, delicacy and easiness of carrying, and e-bike will become the next new trend, subsequent to solar energy and LED. However, SHIMANO, the biggest bike parts company in Japan, is having difficulty in production. Furthermore, EU and Japan have increased the quality and safety standards of bikes. These lead to a tremendous increase in manufacturing costs, and has a great impact on Taiwan, a big bike exporter. Therefore, two issues the bike industry has to tackle are the selection of upstream supplier and the decrease of manufacturing costs.
The bike industry is in an environment with demand of a variety of small quantity products and global competition, and the replenishment strategy from multiple suppliers, the reduction of inventory levels, the minimization of total cost and the maximization of profit are important tasks. In this paper, we study a joint replenishment problem in which a single manufacturer orders multiple items from multiple suppliers. First, we formulate the problem as a mixed integer programming model. The objectives of the model are to minimize total costs, which include ordering cost, purchase cost, transportation cost and holding cost, under the requirement that no inventory shortage is allowed in the system, and to determine an appropriate inventory level for each planning period. Next, particle swarm optimization algorithm model is constructed for solving large-scale lot-sizing problems. An example with two cases of a bike manufacturer is used to illustrate the practicality of the proposed model. The results show that the proposed model is an effective tool for the joint replenishment and supply chain management.

摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iii
致謝 v
目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
一、緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究流程 3
二、文獻探討 4
2.1 供應鏈管理 4
2.2 存貨管理 6
2.2.1 存貨管理的意義 6
2.2.2 存貨政策 7
2.3 補貨問題 9
2.3.1 聯合補貨問題 10
2.3.2 間接分群策略 13
2.3.3 直接分群策略 16
2.4 數量折扣 17
2.5 粒子群演算法 19
2.5.1 簡介 19
2.5.2 流程說明與符號定義 19
2.5.3 PSO的演化過程 21
2.6 臺灣自行車產業 26
三、研究方法與步驟 30
3.1 假設與符號 30
3.2 模型建構 31
3.3 粒子群演算法之演算步驟 33
四、案例研究 35
4.1 自行車 35
4.1.1 簡介 35
4.1.2 零組件簡介 36
4.2 案例探討 38
4.2.1 案例資訊 38
4.2.2 案例結果分析 39
4.2.3 成本比較 43
五、結論與未來研究方向 45
參考文獻 46

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