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研究生:潘思瑩
研究生(外文):Ssu-Ying, Pan
論文名稱:工程訂單環境下於接單階段執行訂單篩選機制之研究
論文名稱(外文):A study to order screening mechanism for ETO production environment at customer enquiry stage
指導教授:曾懷恩曾懷恩引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hwai-En, Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立勤益科技大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:工程訂單大量客製化案例式推論法模糊理論模糊適應指標效用相似度偏好順序評估法
外文關鍵詞:Engineer-To-OrderMass CustomizationCase-Based ReasoningFuzzyFuzzy Suitable IndexUtility SimilarityTechnique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution
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由於現代的科技越來越進步,產業互相競爭的方式層出不窮,企業已漸漸從產品導向轉變為客戶需求導向,個人化的產品等客製需求逐漸增加。而企業為了降低成本必須找出新的解決辦法,因此大量客製化因應而生,希望能以標準化產品的價格來滿足顧客客製化的需求。工具機製造業也不例外,以往大型製造業所處的環境是單純的接單式(Make-to-Order, MTO)生產方式,因為市場上的需求而轉變為具有產品設計改良能力的工程式生產( Engineering-to-Order, ETO)的生產環境,最後漸漸走向大量客製化。但是在轉變過程中,產品規格差異大且複雜,容易導致產品設計瑕疵進而影響生產線延遲、不良率,甚至製作成本過高造成企業虧損。針對此現象本研究以筆與工具機製造業為例,欲建置在ETO生產環境下之「接單階段之訂單定價與篩選」篩選機制,此決策除可即時向客戶反應是否可承接該訂單外,也減少廠商因接單錯誤而造成虧損發生的機率。本研究以案例式推論法(Case-Based Reasoning, CBR)至歷史資料庫搜尋最相近之產品案例,在以該訂單之相似度使用模糊適應指標(Fuzzy Suitable Index, FSI)評估客製技術、困難度等可行性指數並利用效益相似度(Utility Similarity, US)區分訂單等級,以淘汰不符之訂單。在進行成本與交期修正計算,並依照評價等級之語意變數及利潤配置比例內容找到相對應之利潤配置比例訂出訂單訂價,即可以偏好順序評估法(Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, TOPSIS)進行訂單排序。
Under the inconstantly technology environment, companies must continually provide creative way in order to survive in the high competitive environment. Furthermore, enterprises have gradually shifted from product-oriented to customer-oriented. Personalized or customized product continues to rise. Therefore, the patterns of mass customization gradually become the choice for enterprises. Wherein, the machine tool industry is the most typical example. Thus, enterprises gradually transformed from the Make-to-order (MTO) mode of production into the Engineering-to-order (ETO) manufacturing environment. ETO environment easily lead to product design flaws thereby affecting the production line delay, defect rate, and even business losses caused by high production costs. This study intends to build the order pricing and order screening mechanism for the ETO environment. First, Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is used to the historical database for searching the most similar product case. Fuzzy Suitable Index (FSI) method is used to evaluate the customized degree or difficulty for technology. Furthermore, Utility Similarity (US) is adopted to distinguish the level of orders, in order to eliminate discrepancies orders. For the acceptable orders, the cost and due day are calculated. Decision maker can follow the evaluation level and profit allocation ratio to find the corresponding profit allocation ratio, and finally set out orders pricing, At last, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is used for the final order sorting. In this study, pen and machine tool industry are taken as examples to illustrate the proposed methodology. The building of an objective order screening system will help enterprises to make up proper strategies regarding the order selection.
目錄
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 viii
符號設定 ix
一、緒論 1
二、產品特徵樹與訂單篩選架構 5
2.1 產品特徵樹(Step 1) 5
2.2 訂單篩選架構 7
三、案例式推論法 10
3.1 CBR之基本架構 10
3.2相似係數比對(Step 2) 11
四、模糊適應指標與效用相似度 16
4.1 模糊適應指標(Step 3) 16
4.2 效用相似度(Step 4) 20
五、成本、交期計算與利潤配置 24
5.1 成本(Step 5) 24
5.2 訂定交期(Step 6) 25
5.3 利潤配置與售價(Step 7) 26
六、偏好順序評估法(Step 8) 28
6.1 TOPSIS基本概念 28
6.2 TOPSIS法執行步驟 28
七、案例研究 36
7.1 產品介紹 36
7.2 建立產品特徵樹(Step 1) 38
7.3 相似係數比對(Step 2) 39
7.4 模糊適應指標(Step 3) 43
7.5 效用相似度(Step 4) 46
7.6 客製化成本、交期計算與利潤配置 48
7.6.1成本(Step 5) 48
7.6.2訂定交期(Step 6) 49
7.6.3利潤配置與售價(Step 7) 50
7.7 偏好順序評估法(Step 8) 51
7.8 分析結果 56
八、結論 59
參考文獻 60
附錄 63
附錄1 訂單產品特徵樹 63
附錄2 各訂單專家評分表 68
附錄3 公司訪談 73

表目錄
表1 PILOT的關鍵特性值 5
表2 PILOT各訂單之相似度 15
表3評價等級之語意變數及三角模糊數 16
表4評價準則重要程度之三角模糊數 16
表5 評估準則說明表 17
表6評審者對筆之B1訂單的評價準則與權重表 18
表7筆之訂單B1評價準則與權重平均值 19
表8筆之訂單B1-B10的FSI模糊數彙整表 20
表9筆之 、 與 總整表 21
表10語意等級 22
表11筆之訂單B1-B10評量等級 23
表12成本變動評分量表 24
表13筆之B1-B10的成本表 25
表14筆之各訂單交期 26
表15利潤配置表 26
表16筆之訂單評量等級結果 26
表17筆之各訂單售價 27
表18各因素權重計算 32
表19筆之正負理想解 34
表20筆之TOPSIS訂單排序 35
表21工具機LD系列產品關鍵特性值 36
表22工具機LD系列產品特徵(續) 37
表23 B1-B10之各節點的相似度 42
表24工具機各訂單之相似度 43
表25工具機訂單B1評價等級問卷 44
表26工具機訂單B1準則重要程度問卷 44
表27評審者對工具機訂單B1之評價準則與權重表 44
表28工具機之FSI評價準則與權重平均值 45
表29工具機訂單B1-B10之FSI模糊數彙整表 46
表30工具機之 、 與 總整表 47
表31工具機訂單B1-B10評量等級 48
表32工具機B1-B10之成本表 49
表33工具機各訂單交期 50
表34工具機訂單評量等級結果 50
表35工具機各訂單之售價 50
表36各因素權重計算 52
表37工具機之正負理想解 54
表38工具機之TOPSIS訂單排序 55
表 39預估與實際資料之比較 56
表 40各訂單之營運成本 57
表 41 各訂單之延遲費用計算 57
表 42 各訂單交期之比較 58

圖目錄
圖1 PILOT品牌圖 6
圖2 PILOT客戶需求最終產品樹 6
圖3 訂單篩選架構圖 8
圖4基本CBR架構圖 10
圖5 PILOT各節點權重說明 11
圖6 PILOT比對之歷史訂單 12
圖7評價等級之三角模糊數圖 16
圖8評價準則之三角模糊數圖 17
圖9筆之安全天數∝值比對表 26
圖10 TOPSIS方案評估方法之示意圖 28
圖11工具機LD系列產品圖 38
圖12工具機B1訂單產品特徵樹 39
圖13工具機B1各節點權重說明 39
圖14工具機比對之歷史訂單 40
圖15工具機之安全天數∝值比對表 49

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