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研究生:李信昌
研究生(外文):Hsin-ChangLi
論文名稱:層狀土壤受表面諧和負載、地震力作用下之地表振動特性與減振機制研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Characteristics and Reduction of Ground Vibrations Generated by Surface and Seismic Loads Acting on Layered Soils
指導教授:朱聖浩
指導教授(外文):Shen-Haw Ju
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:167
中文關鍵詞:層狀土壤拉夫波不規則隆起含水槽溝振動阻隔軌道不平整性第一自然頻率地震負載列車脫軌
外文關鍵詞:Layered soilsLove waveIrregular humpTrench filled with waterVibration isolationRail irregularityFirst natural frequencySeismic loadingTrain derailment
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本論文主要探討分析彈性層狀土壤之波傳動力特性,首先利用理論矩陣法及有限元素法進行層狀土壤地表面受簡諧點負載之三維波傳現象進行模擬,以各種不同層數之層狀土壤為例,假設這些土層表面受水平或垂直向簡諧點負載作用,藉此兩種方法求解沿著波傳遞方向之穩態水平及垂直向位移分佈並探討對應之地表振動。然考量運算效率及節省計算機硬碟容量等因素,本文最後採用理論矩陣方法進行進一步之表面波振動特性模擬與分析,惟在分析前,特別先進行了過去鮮少作者曾探討之理論矩陣法及有限元素法精度比較,主要用意在確認兩方法之可靠性。藉由理論矩陣方法進行層狀土壤地表面波之振動特性尤其針對拉夫波運動時產生之不規則隆起行為,將於本文中作進一步說明。
其次,為驗證模擬結果,本文以高速鐵路為對象,針對其行駛時所引發的地表振動進行量測,分別選定鄰近南部科學園區北側邊界之典型層狀土壤以及台中后里之均質性土壤當作試驗工址,架設一系列儀器進行地表振動之現地量測,試驗結果顯示層狀土壤之低頻振波比高頻振波可傳播的更遠,且水平剪力波在層狀土壤傳播時將可能產生不規則隆起現象,此一隆起現象將成為建物或廠房安全之潛在威脅,亦是本文研究地表振動之主要課題,而均質土壤之量測結果相對並沒有產生明顯隆起現象。
延續以上分析,可預期另一個必要的課題是如何有效減低因各種外負載造成的地表振動,本文嘗試利用時間域有限元素法對三個座標軸方向進行裝水槽溝阻隔地表振動之效益分析,分析結果指出Y方向(水平垂直於車行之方向)之減振效能最差,尤其在低頻振動狀況。此外,數值模擬經與裝滿水槽溝之現地試驗結果作比較可發現,兩者結果有良好的一致性。
最後,我們的研究議題將探討地震波從土壤底層傳至地面後,產生地表振動對高速鐵路安全性之影響,由於台灣位於地震高風險區,本文遂針對高速列車行駛於路堤段之結構型態,發展了一套有限元素程式模組,以探討行駛中列車受地震力侵襲時之脫軌風險。從模擬結果可知,高速行駛列車與地震波的共振現象以及軌道不平整性,是影響行進中列車脫軌非常重要的因素。

This thesis investigates the dynamic characteristics of wave propagation in elastic layered soils. Both the theoretical matrix and finite element methods are employed to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation in elastic layered soils with a harmonic point load acting on the surface. Using various multi-layer soils in which harmonic point loads act on the ground surface in the horizontal or vertical directions, these two methods are adopted to solve the steady state solutions of both horizontal and vertical displacement distributions along the direction of wave propagation.
In order to confirm the accuracy and reliability of the two assessment methods, it is necessary to compare their results, although few studies have undertaken this task. Moreover, in order to increase efficiency and reduce demands on the computer’s HD capacity, we utilize the theoretical matrix method to further investigate the vibration features of surface wave propagation, especially the irregular hump activity due to Love wave motion.
With regard to validating the simulation results, an experimental approach is carried out by measuring the ground vibration from a high speed train. Two typical locations represented the layered and homogeneous soils respectively are selected to perform the tests. A series of test devices were installed to undertake the in situ measurements and analyses of the vibrations induced by a high speed train. The results reveal that low frequency waves might propagate farther than high frequency ones. Besides, SH propagations in layered soils could possibly generate irregular ground vibrations, which may threaten the safety of buildings. However, such irregular vibration phenomena would not occur in homogeneous soils.
This study thus also considers how to reduce the ground vibration caused by various external loadings. In addition to a parametric study, a 3D time-domain finite element method is used to analyze the isolation efficiency of open trenches filled with different levels of water. The results indicate that the Y direction wave is difficult to reduce in the water trench, especially for low frequency waves. Meanwhile, field experiments with a full water trench are used to validate this finite element model, and the results show an acceptable level of agreement.
Finally, this thesis also considers the safety of high speed trains affected by the ground vibration due to seismic wave propagating in layered soils. Since Taiwan in located in a high risk earthquake zone, we developed a finite element model to simulate the derailment of trains moving on embankments under seismic loading. The results show that the rail irregularities and the resonance between the train and earthquake play an important role in train derailment.
摘 要(CHINESE ABSTRACT) I
ABSTRACT III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS V
CONTENTS VII
LIST OF TABLES XIII
LIST OF FIGURES XV
NOTATIONS XXI
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Objectives and scope of research 2
1.3 Organization of dissertation 5
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Theoretical and numerical studies of wave propagation in layered mediums 8
2.3 Vibration measurements and effects analysis 10
2.4 The various isolation techniques for reducing vibrations 11
2.5 Approaches to estimate seismic hazard and related dynamic behavior for high speed train 12
Chapter 3 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR WAVE PROPAGATION IN SOIL 15
3.1 Introduction 15
3.2 Three-dimensional isoparametric solid element 16
3.2.1 Isoparametric formulation 17
3.2.2 Illustration of element modeling and degenerating 24
3.2.2.1 The interpolation functions of a 3-9-node element 24
3.2.2.2 The interpolation functions of an 8-20-node element 26
3.3 Newmark’s method 31
3.4 Absorbing boundary conditions 34
3.5 The one third (1/3) octave band method and related criteria 39
Chapter 4 FUNDAMENTALS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE PROPAGATION IN LAYERED SOIL 45
4.1 Introduction 45
4.2 Modeling and derivation of simulation methods 45
4.2.1 Theoretical matrix method 46
4.2.2 Finite element method 49
4.3 Comparisons of simulations 50
4.4 Characteristics of uneven SH wave propagation in layered soil
56
4.4.1 Effects of homogeneous and layered soils 57
4.4.2 Effects of the layered soil thicknesses 59
4.5 Chapter summary 63
Chapter 5 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF TRAIN INDUCED WAVES IN LAYERED AND HOMOGENEOUS SOILS 65
5.1 Introduction 65
5.2 Description of geological conditions of test site 66
5.3 Interpretations of measuring instruments 70
5.4 Test procedures and equipment installation 74
5.5 Result of the vibration measurements 79
5.6 Analysis and Discussion of the measurement results 86
5.7 Chapter summary 93
Chapter 6 VIBRATION ISOLATION ANALYSES OF OPEN TRENCH BARRIERS FILLED WITH WATER 95
6.1 Introduction 95
6.2 Fluid-structure interaction finite element analysis 96
6.3 Validation using field experiments 97
6.3.1 Illustration of experiments 97
6.3.2 Finite element model and comparison 100
6.4 Parametric studies of open trenches filled with water 102
6.4.1 Changes in the efficiency of the water trenches with load frequencies 104
6.4.2 Efficiency of the water trenches filled with different water
levels 108
6.4.3 Changes in the efficiency of the water trenches with the trench width 111
6.5 Chapter summary 113
Chapter 7 DYNAMIC INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF TRAINS MOVING ON EMBANKMENTS DURING EARTHQUAKES
115
7.1 Introduction 115
7.2 Models of train, rail irregularities and derailment 116
7.2.1 Train model 116
7.2.2 Rail irregularities 118
7.2.3 Train derailment 119
7.3 Illustration of seismic loading and embankment dimensions 120
7.3.1 Illustration of earthquakes used in this study 120
7.3.2 Absorbing boundary conditions 123
7.3.3 Embankment dimensions and soil properties 123
7.4 Time-domain finite element model with the seismic loading 126
7.5 Investigation of train derailment 129
7.5.1 Train speed and rail irregularity effects 129
7.5.2 Earthquake effects 130
7.5.2.1 Derailment due to earthquake types and PGA 131
7.5.2.2 Derailment due to different train speeds under earthquake loading 136
7.5.3 Discussion of soil effects 137
7.6 Chapter summary 140
Chapter 8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 143
8.1 Conclusions 143
8.2 Recommendations for further research 147
REFERENCES 151
APPENDICES 163
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 167

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