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研究生:張亞凡
研究生(外文):Ya-FanChang
論文名稱:以五大人格理論探討嗅覺感性經驗
論文名稱(外文):The Experience of Olfactory Kansei based on Five-Factor Model
指導教授:馬敏元馬敏元引用關係
指導教授(外文):Min-Yuan Ma
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:工業設計學系碩博士班
學門:設計學門
學類:產品設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:五大人格理論嗅覺感性設計PAD 情緒模型
外文關鍵詞:Five-Factor ModelOlfactoryKaisei DesignPAD Emotional State Model
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隨著時代變遷,從Louis Sullivan (1856-1924) 提出著名設計理論「形隨機能」 (Form Follows Function) 認為形態是隨著機能的需求而設計或改變,到「形隨趣味」 (Form Follows Fun) 與「形隨情感」 (Form Follows Emotion) ,產品演變上伴隨情緒傳達以為顯學。五感 (視覺、聽覺、嗅覺、味覺、觸覺) 的魅力主導了人們對於產品的選擇:對商品的評價,除了單純的「好、壞」外,更增添「喜歡、不喜歡」這樣感官的情緒。由於五感經驗的重要,而嗅覺又為記憶感知最為強烈之感官,因此本研究欲探討嗅覺經驗影響情緒的程度,以及是否因人格特質不同而有所關聯。

本研究探討五大人格特質在嗅覺經驗上情緒構面之變化,以及是否因人格特質不同而有所關聯。規劃流程如下:挑選適合本研究之五大人格特質評測工具、篩選嗅覺經驗類目與製作PAD情緒量表,分析探討各人格特質其嗅覺經驗的情緒構面變化與關聯,期望未來能提供設計單位設計產品或制訂感性行銷策略時參考,並拓展國內感官經驗之研究範圍與應用。

嗅覺經驗之情緒變化以PAD情緒量表評測,並透過複迴歸分析方法 (Multiple Regression Analysis) 進行分析,研究結果顯示五大人格特質對於嗅覺經驗之情緒構面變化皆存在高度相關。研究結果如下:
(1) 五大人格特質之嗅覺類目的情緒構面複迴歸分析函數式15項。
(2) 嗅覺經驗與五大人格特質之關係,在情緒愉悅度 (Pleasure) 方面,影響由大至小依序為神經質 (R=0.922) 〉開放性 (R=0.854) 〉外向 (R=0.837) 〉謹慎 (R=0.837) 〉親和力 (R=0.78) ;情緒激發度 (Arousal) 方面,影響由大至小依序為謹慎性 (R=0.895) 〉神經質 (R=0.856) 〉開放性 (R=0.841) 〉外向性 (R=0.708) 〉親和力 (R=0.674) ;在情緒支配度 (Dominance) 方面,影響由大至小依序為開放性 (R=0.860) 謹慎性〉 (R=0.798) 〉神經質 (R=0.766) 外向性 (R=0.736) 〉 〉親和力 (R=0.670) 。
(3) 謹慎性 (Conscientiousness) 人格特質對嗅覺類目的激發度情緒 (Arousal) ,比其他人格特質關聯性高。開放性 (Openness/ Openness to Experience/ Intellect) 人格特質,在嗅覺類目的支配度情緒構面上 (Dominance) ,呈現高關聯性。其他人格特質 - 親和力 (Agreeableness) 、外向性 (Extraversion) 與神經質 (Neuroticism/ Emotional Stability) 則呈現與愉悅度 (Pleasure) 情緒構面高度相關 (R值皆大於0.8) 。推斷嗅覺經驗之感性需求,最重要者為愉悅度 (Pleasure) 情緒構面。

From the statement of Louis Sullivan (1856-1924), “Form Follows Function” (The shape of a building or object should be primarily based upon its intended function or purpose.) to the “Form Follows Fun” and the “Form Follows Emotion” over the past few years, designing for emotion become the major trend of design. The attractive elements of products from the five Senses (Vision, Olfactory, Gustatory, Tactile, and Auditory) become the major factor in consumers’ choice. Besides “good” or “bad”, there is more judgment of “like ” or “dislike”. Among the five sensual experiences in design, olfactory plays the most significant role for perceptual memory. Therefore, this study aims on exploring the extent to which olfactory experiences affect the emotion and the correlation among emotion and personality traits.
The procedures are as follow:(1) To select appropriate evaluation tool for personality traits. (2) To select olfactory experience category. (3) Build PAD Emotion Scales for analyzing the relatioship among emotion and olfactory experiences and personality traits. The expectation of study is to support kansei marketing strategy and expand relevant research of sensual emotion in the future.
The Emotional state of subjects was measured and analyzed by Multiple Regression Analysis. The results indicate that:(1) There are 15mathematical formulas that describe the correlation between olfactory experiences and personality traits by PAD emotion scale. (2) Based on R score from “Pleasure Scale”, the ranking of personality traits from high to low are:Neuroticism (R=0.922) 〉 Openness (R=0.854) 〉 Extraversion (R=0.837) 〉 Conscientiousness (R=0.837) 〉 Agreeableness (R=0.78). Based on R score from ” Arousal Scale”, the ranking of personality traits from high to low are:Conscientiousness (R=0.895) 〉 Neuroticism (R=0.856) 〉 Openness (R=0.841) 〉 Extraversion (R=0.708) 〉 Agreeableness (R=0.674). Based on R score from ” Dominance Scale”, the ranking of personality traits from high to low are:Openness (R=0.860) Conscientiousness〉 (R=0.798) 〉 Neuroticism (R=0.766) Extraversion (R=0.736) 〉 〉 Agreeableness (R=0.670) 。(3) Comparing the score of PAD scale by five personality traits, its shows high correlation between “Conscientiousness” and ” Arousal” ; “Openness” and ” Dominance Scale”. Besides, “Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Neuroticism” shows high correlation (R〉0.8) to “Pleasure Scale”. The study infers that the emotion“Pleasure” plays the most significant role in olfactory experience of Kansei needs.

摘 要 I
Abstract II
誌 謝 III
目 錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景與動機 1
1-1-1感性商品 1
1-1-2「心」的價值 3
1-1-3感性經驗的趨勢:嗅覺互動 4
1-2 研究目的 5
1-3 研究範圍與限制 6
1-3-1研究範圍 6
1-3-2研究限制 6
1-4 研究流程與架構 7
第二章 文獻探討 8
2-1 情緒與人格 8
2-1-1魅力體驗與感性消費 8
2-1-2情緒的構面 9
2-1-3五大人格理論 (Five-Factor Model) 11
2-2 嗅覺經驗 14
2-2-1嗅覺的特性 14
2-2-2嗅覺經驗的形成 16
2-2-3嗅覺經驗的影響 17
2-3 情緒的評測工具 18
2-3-1感性評價的方法 18
2-3-2數量化I 類 (Quantification Theory Type I) 18
2-3-3 PAD情緒模型 (PAD Emotional State Model) 20
第三章 研究方法與步驟 23
3-1 實驗流程架構圖 23
3-2 實驗項目挑選說明 24
3-3 實驗問卷設計 25
第四章 研究結果與分析 34
4-1 五大人格特質分析結果 34
4-1-1五大人格特質之數據分析 34
4-1-2小結 36
4-2 嗅覺體驗之情緒評測結果分析 37
4-2-1嗅覺體驗之情緒評測 41
4-2-2小結 43
4-3 五大人格之嗅覺體驗情緒評測結果分析 44
4-3-1情緒構面-愉悅度部分結果分析 44
4-3-2情緒構面-激發度部分結果分析 54
4-3-3情緒構面-支配度部分結果分析 64
4-3-4小結 74
4-4 討論 75
第五章 結論與建議 77
5-1 研究結果 77
5-1-1複迴歸分析-五大人格特質其嗅覺經驗之情緒構面變化 77
5-1-2嗅覺經驗 82
5-1-3五大人格特質其嗅覺經驗之情緒構面關聯 84
5-2 研究貢獻 84
5-3 後續研究建議 85
參考文獻 86
英文文獻 86
中文文獻 89
附錄 90
附表Pleasure-1類目相關性交互參照表 (外向性/嗅覺類目愉悅度) 90
附表Pleasure-2類目相關性交互參照表 (親和力/嗅覺類目愉悅度) 91
附表Pleasure-3類目相關性交互參照表 (謹慎性/嗅覺類目愉悅度) 92
附表Pleasure-4類目相關性交互參照表 (神經質/嗅覺類目愉悅度) 93
附表Pleasure-5類目相關性交互參照表 (開放性/嗅覺類目愉悅度) 94
附表Arousal-1類目相關性交互參照表 (外向性/嗅覺類目激發度) 95
附表Arousal-2類目相關性交互參照表 (親和力/嗅覺類目激發度) 96
附表Arousal-3類目相關性交互參照表 (謹慎性/嗅覺類目激發度) 97
附表Arousal-4類目相關性交互參照表 (神經質/嗅覺類目激發度) 98
附表Arousal-5類目相關性交互參照表 (開放性/嗅覺類目激發度) 99
附表Dominance-1類目相關性交互參照表 (外向性/嗅覺類目支配度) 100
附表Dominance-2類目相關性交互參照表 (親和力/嗅覺類目支配度) 101
附表Dominance-3類目相關性交互參照表 (謹慎性/嗅覺類目支配度) 102
附表Dominance-4類目相關性交互參照表 (神經質/嗅覺類目支配度) 103
附表Dominance-5類目相關性交互參照表 (開放性/嗅覺類目支配度) 104


圖目錄

圖1- 1 BANDAI無限毛豆 (むげんエダマメ) 與無限氣泡紙 (むげんプチプチ) 2
圖1- 2天晴設計 Chocolate Headphone 2
圖1- 3 建構情報建築之想法 3
圖1- 4 Mooq 桌上的森林 4
圖1- 5 Flavor Eating Utensils 4
圖1- 6 研究流程圖 7

圖2- 1 重繪「消費價值判斷三層次」 8
圖2- 2 重繪Bernd H. Schmitt的「感官行銷之範疇」 9
圖2- 3 情緒與行為關係模式 10
圖2- 4 嗅受器與嗅覺系統的整合 15
圖2- 5 Circumflex Model of Affect 21

圖3- 1 實驗流程架構圖 23
圖3- 2 整理International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) 原始資料 26
圖3- 3完整問卷內容 33

圖4- 1受測者人格特質分佈圖 34
圖4- 2 嗅覺經驗之情緒評測累計 (情緒構面-愉悅度) 37
圖4- 3 嗅覺經驗之情緒評測累計 (情緒構面-激發度) 38
圖4- 4 嗅覺經驗之情緒評測累計 (情緒構面-支配度) 39
圖4- 5情緒構面變化R值折線圖 76


表目錄

表2- 1 五因素歸納表 11
表2- 2 Five-Factor Model之人格領域與面向 13
表2- 3 消費性產品之氣味分群 16
表2- 4 R與信賴關係比較表 19
表2- 5 最初的PAD Emotional Components 20
表2- 6 調整後的PAD Emotional Components 21
表2- 7 二分概念的情緒組成PAD Emotional Components 22

表3- 1 正向題與負向題的計分方式比較表 25
表3- 2 本研究評測情緒之嗅覺經驗項目 27
表3- 3 Schifferstein & Tanudjaja的PAD Emotional Components 28
表3- 4本研究繪製之PAD Emotional Scale 28

表4- 1本研究之受測者五大人格特質評測數據 35
表4- 2本研究評測情緒之嗅覺經驗項目 41
表4- 3 嗅覺體驗之情緒評測原始數據 41
表4- 4複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (外向性/嗅覺類目之愉悅度) 44
表4- 5複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 44
表4- 6複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (外向性/嗅覺類目之愉悅度) 45
表4- 7複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (親和力/嗅覺類目之愉悅度) 46
表4- 8複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 46
表4- 9複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (親和力/嗅覺類目之愉悅度) 47
表4- 10複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (謹慎性/嗅覺類目之愉悅度) 48
表4- 11複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 48
表4- 12複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (謹慎性/嗅覺類目之愉悅度) 49
表4- 13複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (神經質/嗅覺類目之愉悅度) 50
表4- 14複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 50
表4- 15複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (神經質/嗅覺類目之愉悅度) 51
表4- 16複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (開放性/嗅覺類目之愉悅度) 52
表4- 17複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 52
表4- 18複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (開放性/嗅覺類目之愉悅度) 53
表4- 19複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (外向性/嗅覺類目之激發度) 54
表4- 20複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 54
表4- 21複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (外向性/嗅覺類目之激發度) 55
表4- 22複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (親和力/嗅覺類目之激發度) 56
表4- 23複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 56
表4- 24複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (親和力/嗅覺類目之激發度) 57
表4- 25複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (謹慎性/嗅覺類目之激發度) 58
表4- 26複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 58
表4- 27複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (謹慎性/嗅覺類目之激發度) 59
表4- 28複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (神經質/嗅覺類目之愉悅度) 60
表4- 29複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 60
表4- 30複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (神經質/嗅覺類目之激發度) 61
表4- 31複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (開放性/嗅覺類目之激發度) 62
表4- 32複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 62
表4- 33複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (開放性/嗅覺類目之激發度) 63
表4- 34複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (外向性/嗅覺類目之支配度) 64
表4- 35複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 64
表4- 36複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (外向性/嗅覺類目之支配度) 65
表4- 37複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (親和力/嗅覺類目之支配度) 66
表4- 38複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 66
表4- 39複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (親和力/嗅覺類目之支配度) 67
表4- 40複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (謹慎性/嗅覺類目之支配度) 68
表4- 41複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 68
表4- 42複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (謹慎性/嗅覺類目之支配度) 69
表4- 43複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (神經質/嗅覺類目之支配度) 70
表4- 44複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 70
表4- 45複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (神經質/嗅覺類目之支配度) 71
表4- 46複迴歸統計結果之摘要 (開放性/嗅覺類目之支配度) 72
表4- 47複迴歸統計結果之變異數分析與殘差統計量 72
表4- 48複迴歸統計結果之係數表 (開放性/嗅覺類目之支配度) 73
表4- 49情緒構面變化R值 75
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