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研究生:柯彥廷
研究生(外文):Yen-tingKo
論文名稱:瑪格莉特‧愛特伍之《末日男女》中的關懷繼承
論文名稱(外文):The Legacy of Care in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake
指導教授:劉開鈴劉開鈴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kai-ling Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:反烏托邦預想小說創傷基因科技末日男女
外文關鍵詞:DystopiaSpeculative FictionTraumaGenetic EngineeringOryx and Crake
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藉由《末日男女》中的反烏托邦,加拿大作家瑪格莉特‧愛特伍意圖喚醒當代讀
者的倫理道德意識。經由小說主角吉米/雪人的創傷、心理盲點與末世倖存,愛
特伍反映將其長期關注的女性困境擴展於全人類的生存困境。小說中,看似反對
基因科技,實則試圖強調人道關懷與倫理道德對人性的重要性。本論文第一章聚
焦於末日前,吉米猶疑掙扎於人道關懷與冷酷剝削之間。縱使吉米有強烈的倫理
道德意識,然而,其科學社會造就的封閉心靈,與母親雪倫所引發的心理創傷盲
目他的倫理覺醒(ethical awakening),使他對於親眼所見,資本主義的剝削與
奴役毫無作為。不僅如此,吉米的盲點與沉默更使其成為人類滅絕中的受害與加
害者。所幸,他最終得以承接摯愛遺留的關懷繼承(the legacy of care)使其倖存
並肩負重要使命──傳承與實踐其充滿人道關懷的倫理責任。接著,第二章探究
雪人的倫理覺醒與其轉變。雪人,背負道德使命的倖存者,無法歸咎自身罪惡於
好友克雷格,於末世後發揮字人(word person)的潛能,將克雷格、奧麗克絲和
末日前的貪婪社會化作道德寓言,警世克雷格人與當代讀者,藉以傳承其繼承的
關懷倫理之遺贈。克雷格人為雪人繼承的道德責任,而字與藝術成就其生存意
義,兩者相輔相成;藉由傳承倫理思維於基因改造的克雷格人,雪人試圖調停末
世前科學科技與藝術文學懸殊相斥的概念。最後,鑒於《末日男女》中的吉米/
雪人所象徵的生存困境及倫理覺醒,愛特伍企望經由小說中的道德淪喪與關懷繼
承,喚醒當代讀者對弱勢與世界環境的同理心,並正視且發揮自我內在的倫理道
德。
This thesis aims to explore the significance of the legacy of care in terms of the
individual survival through a traumatic loss and the end of human history in Margaret
Atwood’s Oryx and Crake. Atwood sees the dystopian world in Oryx and Crake as a
warning of the horrible consequence of the abuse of genetic engineering and of the
blindness in human heart. Yet, there is still hope if we are awakened by Snowman’s
legacy of humanitarian care. Chapter One focuses on Jimmy’s struggle to identify
with the moral and sympathetic or the unmoral and exploitative, which causes his
trauma before the apocalypse. Although he has the ethical, humanistic potentiality, he
turns a blind eye to the vice of genetic engineering and doesn’t take a stand. His
blindness and silence make him a victim/accomplice/sinner of Crake’s project of
human extinction. He also loses the chance of Oryx’s salvation, but he still bears a
responsibility inherited from Sharon, Oryx and Crake to survive the apocalypse. In
Chapter Two, after the apocalypse, Snowman, Jimmy’s alias, is awakened by the
legacy of his beloved and by Jimmy’s tragic flaw. Snowman endeavors to accomplish
his ethical responsibility and deploys his potentiality as a word person to obtain his
salvation. By dictating a mythical genesis, Snowman preserves the human history and
passes on the moral lesson to the Crakers. Besides, word and storytelling are the
meaning of his survival as well as his attempt of reconciliation between
science/biotechnology and art/word. To sum up, Snowman’s survival and Jimmy’s
transformation into Snowman represent an ethical awakening, a symbolic recovery of
vision and a ray of hope and possibility for future. By this novel, Atwood hopes that
Snowman’s moral lesson can awaken the contemporary readers to bring about change.
Table of Contents

Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 1

Chapter One: Jimmy: The Care Lost ............................................................................... 19

Chapter Two: Snowman: The Care Regained .............................................................. 55

Conclusion ………………………………………..……………………..……........... 95

Works Cited …………………………………………………………….…..……………. 100

Works Cited
Atwood, Margaret. Oryx and Crake. New York: Anchor, 2003. Print.
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---. “Writing Utopia. Ed. Margaret Atwood. Writing with Intent: Essays, Reviews, Personal Prose, 1983-2005. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2005. 92-100. Print.
---. “Writing Oryx and Crake. Ed. Margaret Atwood. Writing with Intent: Essays, Reviews, Personal Prose, 1983-2005. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2005. 284-86. Print.
Barzilai, Shuli. “‘Tell My Story’: Remembrance and Revenge in Atwood’s Oryx and Crake and Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Critique 50.1 (2008): 87-110. Print.
Bateman, Coates. “A Conversation with Margaret Atwood. Web. 16 Jun. 2012. ( http://www.randomhouse.com/boldtype/0503/atwood/interview.html ).
Bouson, Brooks J. “It’s Game over Forever: Atwood’s Satiric Vision of a Bioengineered Posthuman Future in Oryx and Crake. Journal of Commonwealth Literature 39.3 (2004): 139-56. Print.
Brydon, Diana. “Atwood’s Global Ethic: The Open Eye, The Blind Eye. Margaret Atwood: The Open Eye. Ed. Moss and Tobi Kozakewich. Ottawa: U of Ottawa P, 2006: 447-58. Print.
Couturier-Storey, Françoise. “Ecological Disaster, Literature and Eternal Vigilance in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. ( http://www.griseldaonline.it/temi/ecologia-dello-sguardo/atwood-ecological-disaster-vigilance.html ).
Davis, Roger. “A White Illusion of a Man: Snowman, Survival and Speculation in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake. Hosting the Monster. Ed. Holly L. Baumgartner and Roger Davis. New York: Rodopi, 2008. 1-13. Print.
DiMarco, Danette. “Paradice Lost, Paradise Regained: Homo Faber and the Makings of a New Beginning in Oryx and Crake. Papers on Language and Literature: A Journal For Scholars and Critics of Language and Literature 41.2 (2005): 170-95. Print.
Dunning, Stephen. “Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake: The Terror of the Therapeutic. Canadian Literature 186 (2005): 86-101. Print.
Foy, Nathalie. “The Representation of the Absent Mother in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake. Margaret Atwood: The Open Eye. Ed. Moss and Tobi Kozakewich. Ottawa: U of Ottawa P, 2006: 407-19. Print.
Gonzales, Sarah. “Grave New World. Rev. of Oryx and Crake, by Margaret Atwood. Ms. Summer 2003: 91.
Glover, Jayne. “Human/Nature: Ecological Philosophy in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake. English Studies in Africa 52.2 (2009): 50-62. Print.
Gibson, Mary Ellis. “Thinking about the Technique of Skiing When You’re Halfway down the Hill. Margaret Atwood: Conversations. Ed. Earl G. Ingersoll. Princeton: Ontario Review P, 1990. 33-9. Print.
Hall, Susan L. “The Last Laugh: A Critique of the Object Economy in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake. Contemporary Women’s Writing 4.3 (2010): 179-96. Print.
Halliwell, Martin. “Awaiting the Perfect Storm. Ed. Earl G. Ingersoll. Waltzing Again: New and Selected Conversation with Margaret Atwood. New York: Ontario Review P, 2006. 251-64. Print.
Hengen, Shannon. “Margaret Atwood and Environmentalism. The Cambridge Companion to Margaret Atwood. Ed. Coral Ann Howells. New York: Cambridge UP, 2006: 72-85. Print.
Howells, Coral Ann. “Margaret Atwood’s Dystopian Visions: The Handmaid’s Tale and Oryx and Crake. The Cambridge Companion to Margaret Atwood. Ed. Coral Ann Howells. New York: Cambridge UP, 2006. 161-75. Print.
---. “Oryx and Crake. Ed. Coral Ann Howells. Margaret Atwood. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. 170-84. Print.
Ingersoll, Earl G. “Survival in Margaret Atwood’s Novel Oryx and Crake. Extrapolation: A Journal of Science Fiction and Fantasy 45.2 (2004): 162-75. Print.
Labudova, Katarina. “Power, Pain, and Manipulation in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake and The Year of The Flood. Brno Studies in English 36.2 (2010): 135-46. Print.
Posner, Richard A. “The End Is Near. Rev. of Oryx and Crake, by Margaret Atwood. New Republic 22 September 2003: 31-6. ( http://www.powells.com/review/2003_09_18.html ).
Rao, Eleonora. “Home and Nation in Margaret Atwood’s Later Fiction. The Cambridge Companion to Margaret Atwood. Ed. Coral Ann Howells. New York: Cambridge UP, 2006: 100-113. Print.
Sasame, Kiyomi. “Food for Survival in Margaret Atwood’s Dystopian Worlds. The Japanese Journal of American Studies 21 (2010): 89-108. Print.
Showalter, Elaine. “The Snowman Cometh. London Review of Books. 24 July 2003. 35. Print.
Staels, Hilde. “Oryx and Crake: Atwood’s Ironic Inversion of Frankenstein. Margaret Atwood: The Open Eye. Ed. Moss and Tobi Kozakewich. Ottawa: U of Ottawa P, 2006: 433-46. Print.
Tolan, Fiona. “Oryx and Crake: A Postfeminist Future. Margaret Atwood: Feminism and Fiction. Ed. Fiona Tolan. New York: Rodopi, 2007. 273-97. Print.
---. “The Psychoanalytic Theme in Margaret Atwood’s Fiction: A Response to Burkhard Niederhoff. Connotations 19.1 (2009): 92-106. Print.
Vevaina, Coomi S. “Margaret Atwood and History. The Cambridge Companion to Margaret Atwood. Ed. Coral Ann Howells. New York: Cambridge UP, 2006: 86-99. Print.
Wilson, Sharon R. “Blindness and Survival in Margaret Atwood’s Major Novels. The Cambridge Companion to Margaret Atwood. Ed. Coral Ann Howells. New York: Cambridge UP, 2006: 176-90. Print.
---. “Frankenstein’s Gaze and Atwood’s Sexual Politics in Oryx and Crake. Margaret Atwood: The Open Eye. Ed. Moss and Tobi Kozakewich. Ottawa: U of Ottawa P, 2006: 397-406. Print.
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