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研究生:陳靜瑤
研究生(外文):Jing-YaoChen
論文名稱:探討以影片為基礎的情境感知暨無所不在學習系統對合作式英語聽力理解之學習成效研究
論文名稱(外文):A study on the learning effects of a context-aware ubiquitous video-based learning system with a focus on English collaborative listening comprehension
指導教授:劉繼仁劉繼仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Gi-Zen Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:無所不在學習影音聽力合作學習語言學習策略學科內容教學法健身英文
外文關鍵詞:ubiquitous learningvideolisteningcollaborative learninglanguage learning strategiesContent-Based InstructionFitness English
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近年來,台灣的商業及教育機構等對於英語聽力為主的測驗越加重視及要求。為了使學生在測驗中的英語聽力理解程度更佳,台灣學校機關漸漸將科技融入於英語教育中。此外,雖然諸多第二外語聽力學習活動會搭配影片的使用,但將影音結合新興科技與感應科技的研究仍不多。此研究假設合作學習及學科內容教學法皆對語言學習有正面成效,因此將探討其帶來的效果及可能的問題。
本個案研究目的在了解大學生在一個情境感知健身中心的合作式聽力學習成效為何,以及探知聽力學習策略的使用和學習者在無所不在學習情境下對於合作學習的觀點。並根據此研究實驗研究結果發展一個情境感知暨無所不在的學習設計模式。
此研究使用設計研究法(Barab & Squire, 2004; Wang & Hannafin, 2005)及質量並重的方法,收集和分析實驗數據。首先,學習系統是根據活動理論的觀點而設計的,且學習影音及學習活動則運用學科內容教學法的原理所設計出,第二,此研究招募三十六位非英語主修之大學生,依據一系列的聽力測驗、一份系統滿意度調查問卷及觀察以測知他們的健身英文聽力理解。最後,九位受訪者經由半結構式訪談提供寶貴的想法及建議。研究結果重點如下:
1. 透過無所不在學習物件支援及合作學習後,前測及後測的結果顯示學習者的聽力理解明顯進步,歸因於無所不在學習工具與教材的輔助和合作學習的效果。問卷的結果也指出學習者對學習系統和學習方式抱持正面觀感。
2. 訪談者認為使用影音訓練聽力相當有用,且行動裝置使得學習者不受時空限制,更加靈活的進行學習。另外,使用二維條碼和小組組員互動及取得組員二維條碼的學習進度資訊是相當有趣創新的,然而掃描這類二維條碼的過程對部分學生來說,造成些許的困難。
3. 合作聽力學習活動聚集了小組組員一起面對面作互動討論,且有連網的智慧型手機所帶來的機動性使得學習者得以擁有更多機會和同儕及環境互動。此外,合作學習使得小組組員間的情感更加緊密,且學習成果也更佳更豐碩。
4. 訪談結果發現比起個人學習的情況下,學習者在合作學習時運用更多語言學習策略。進一步分析指出,學習者在合作學習情況下採用更頻繁的策略有:認知、後設認知及社交策略。因此,這些策略提供給將來無所不在學習者及教師作為參考。
最後,本研究發展一個無所不在學習設計模式,根據Dabbagh’s (2005)的數位學習模式改編來的,且此發展的模式包含四大重要元素。此外,此模式用來幫助將來的無所不在學習者達到更佳的學習表現以及可作為學習系統設計者的參考,以設計更有成效及有益處的學習系統。

In recent years, Taiwanese businesses settings and educational institutions have been emphasizing the importance of English listening comprehension-based exams. In order to better prepare students for these, local educational institutions have been increasingly working to integrate technology with English teaching and learning opportunities. Moreover, while some studies have investigated second language (L2) listening learning activities with video, there has been a lack of research focusing on the use of video with newly developed mobile devices and sensing technologies. In this study, the researcher hypothesized that collaborative learning and Content-Based Instruction (CBI) could facilitate language learning, so she conducted a study to identify its real effects and possible problems.
This case study aimed to investigate undergraduate students’ language learning effects in a context-aware fitness center, with the focus on collaborative listening skill development using smartphones and QR codes. Additionally, this work also examined the use of language learning strategies with a focus on listening comprehension and participants’ perceptions of collaborative learning with u-learning scaffolds. The researcher used a design-based research method (Barab & Squire, 2004; Wang & Hannafin, 2005), and used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect and analyze the data. Firstly, the design of the learning system was based on Activity Theory, and then learning videos and activities were applied based on the principles of Content-Based Instruction. Secondly, thirty-six non-English-major undergraduates attended this learning program, and their learning performance with regard to Fitness English listening comprehension was examined through a series of listening tests, one questionnaire, and observations. Finally, nine interviewees also provided further insights via semi-structured interviews. The findings of the study are as follows.
First, the results of the pre- and posttests indicated that the participants’ listening comprehension improved significantly due to the effects of the u-learning scaffolds including learning devices and the learning materials designed based on principles of CBI and collaboration. In addition, the results of the questionnaire showed that learners held positive attitudes toward the u-learning system and the learning method used in this work.
Second, the interviewees explained that the videos were useful for listening training, and the smartphones provided accessibility and flexibility. In addition, they stated that while getting the QR codes generated from their teammates was interesting, in practice this was not easy to achieve.
Third, the collaborative listening activities gathered everyone from each team to carry out face-to-face interactions, and the smartphones gave the learners to have more opportunities to interact with their peers and the environment. In addition, the affective relationships between team members were enhanced by this learning activity, and better learning outcomes were achieved.
Fourth, the interview results indicated during collaborative learning the students adopted more language learning strategies than in individual learning. Moreover, the learners employed cognitive, metacognitive and social strategies more frequently in the process of collaboration. Therefore, it is suggested that the strategies presented in this study be used by other instructors when teaching u-learning students.
Finally, the study developed a u-learning design model which was adapted from Dabbagh’s (2005) E-learning model, and this contained four important components, including pedagogical models or constructs, instructional strategies, learning technologies and context. The model was established to help future u-learners accomplish better learning performance, and it can also serve to guide instructional designers to design more effective and useful learning systems.

摘要 II
ABSTRACT IV
Acknowledgements VII
TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII
List of Figures XI
List of Tables XIII
CHAPTER ONE 1
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Purpose of this Study 2
1.3 Significance of this Study 3
1.4 Definitions of Key Terms used in this Study 4
CHAPTER TWO 7
LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1. English pedagogical theories and practices related to this study 7
2.1.1. Listening and language learning 8
2.1.2. Video and listening 10
2.1.3 Content-Based Instruction (CBI) 11
2.1.4 English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and language learning strategies 13
2.1.5 Language learning strategies 14
2.1.6 Instructional design models 15
2.2 Computer-supported Collaborative Learning 17
2.2.1 Collaborative language learning 17
2.2.2 Activity theory 20
2.3 Context-aware ubiquitous learning 21
2.3.1 An emerging trend in language learning: Context-aware ubiquitous learning 22
2.3.2 Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and ubiquitous learning 25
2.4 Summary 27
2.5 Research questions 28
CHAPTER THREE 30
METHODOLOGY 30
3.1 The development and design of the Ubiquitous Fitness English Listening Comprehension System 31
3.1.1 Learning Activities Design 31
3.1.2 Learning Materials Design 34
3.1.3 Learning System Design 35
3.2 Empirical Design 42
3.2.1 Participants 43
3.2.2 Instruments 43
3.2.3 Research Setting 44
3.2.4 Procedure 45
3.3 Data Collection 47
3.4 Data Analysis 47
CHAPTER FOUR 51
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 51
Overview 51
4.1 Results of Quantitative Data Analysis 54
4.1.1 Results of Learning Achievement Tests with a Focus on Listening Comprehension 54
4.1.2 Results of the usage experience questionnaire for UFELCS learners 56
4.1.3 Analysis of the discussion board-Twitter 65
4.2 Results of Qualitative Data Analysis 67
4.2.1 Perceptions and Experiences of Using the U-Learning System for Collaborative Learning 68
4.2.2 Language Learning Strategies 69
4.2.3 Suggestions for the learning contents and the u-learning system 72
4.3 Summarized Findings 73
4.4 Discussion of the First Research Question 74
4.5 Discussion of the Second Research Question 77
4.6 Discussion of the Third Research Question 81
4.7 Discussion of the Fourth Research Question 85
CHAPTER FIVE 89
IMPLICATIONS, LIMITATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 89
5.1 Implications for future research 89
5.2 Limitations of this study 90
5.3 Recommendations for teachers, learners and instructional designers 91
5.4 Conclusions 92
References 95
APPENDICES 106
Appendix A: The Content of the Orientation 106
Appendix B: The Description of the Learning System 108
Appendix C:The Account of Twitter Application Process 111
Appendix D: The Consent Form for Participation in This Study 112
Appendix E: Agreement on the Use of Equipment 114
Appendix F: A Sample of Pre-, Post, and Delayed Tests 115
Appendix G: A Sample of Learning Materials 124
Appendix H : The Usage Experience Questionnaire 126
AppendixI: The Consent Form for the Interviews 130
Appendix J: Interview Questions 131
CURRICULUM VITAE 132


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