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研究生:吳孟澤
研究生(外文):Meng-ZeWu
論文名稱:論菲利浦‧羅斯在《反美陰謀》的後九一一美國寓言
論文名稱(外文):Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America: An Allegory for Post-9/11 America
指導教授:張淑麗張淑麗引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Li Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:菲利浦‧羅斯《反美陰謀》虛擬歷史小說寓言後九一一種族主義喬治‧布希恐懼
外文關鍵詞:Philip RothThe Plot Against Americaalternative historyallegorypost-9/11racismGeorge W. Bushfear
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菲利浦‧羅斯發表於2004年的《反美陰謀》,在文類分類上是一部虛擬歷史小說。故事始於美國1940年的總統大選選季,原本該是由富蘭克林‧羅斯福取得總統連任,他卻敗給了一位當時赫赫有名的飛行英雄─查爾斯‧林白。在林白掌權下,美裔猶太人活在政府密謀迫害的恐慌之中。該書發行前夕,羅斯刊登一篇文章來加以澄清:「此書不應被視為對美國現況的影射。」然而,在文章結尾,羅斯卻又筆鋒一轉批評前任總統喬治‧布希施政上的缺失。正因這似乎帶有情緒的抱怨誘使筆者將此作品閱讀為對美國後九一一的寓言。九一一恐怖攻擊無疑是本世紀初最重大的歷史事件,它對美國造成的後續效應亦是多方面的,而羅斯的《反美陰謀》則特別針對九一一後政治及民生上的轉變進行強烈批判。首先,筆者探討小說裡種族之間矛盾、緊張的關係,並認為作者在此時此刻發表這樣的作品,意在凸顯美國現存種族問題之嚴重性。接著,筆者論證羅斯虛構的林白總統其實用意在於諷刺總統布希,林白的軍事主義形象、對媒體的操控、各項種族清洗政策等,「一位法西斯主義者」正是羅斯對布希的嚴厲評價。最後,筆者探討小說裡角色們的恐懼心理,恐懼、害怕亦是九一一後美國人最普遍的生活情緒,但特別的是,羅斯卻帶著幽默風趣的筆調來刻畫人們最嚴肅、脆弱的一面。筆者認為,羅斯詼諧的筆調意旨建議美國人們拋下對其他族裔不必要的害怕,而另一方面,則批評布希政府錯誤的施政導致人民活在其恫嚇的無端恐慌之中。
Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America (2004) is an alternative historical novel, envisioning that if Charles A. Lindbergh had been elected to run the 1940 presidential campaign for the Republican Party and then defeated Franklin Delano Roosevelt, American Jews would have lived in fear of the Lindbergh government plotting against them. Before the novel came out, Roth released an article “The Story Behind The Plot Against America” to suggest to the reader that the novel should not be read as “a roman à clef to the present moment in America.” However, in the end of the article, Roth emotionally complains of President Bush being “unfit to run a hardware store let alone a nation like this one.” Thus, it is Roth’s complaint against Bush that prompts me to read the novel as an allegory of post-9/11 America. The 9/11 events indeed not only were a political crisis requiring the Bush government to make due responses to the terrorist threat posed to Americans and to radically adjust its foreign and domestic policy, but the events have also shaped the way Americans live their lives. First, I discuss the issue of racism which is still urgent, given that 9/11 has caused racial disharmony in American society, especially the relation between Muslims and other ethnic groups. Even though The Plot Against America is about anti-Semitism, Roth intends to reveal his concern with American society of today which has still been plagued by implicit racism. Second, I argue that the novelistic Lindbergh, in fact, should be read as a stand-in for President Bush in terms of their militaristic image, manipulation of the media, and domestic policies. Finally, it is evident that fear is the central emotion that Jewish characters feel throughout the novel, and the social atmosphere defining the post-9/11 age. By examining Roth’s adoption of comic tones in narrating the characters’ fears, I argue that Roth wants Americans to try to relieve their fears of ethnic others and, moreover, he also criticizes Bush for forcing people to live like paranoid lunatics under his administration.
Table of Contents

Chapter One: Introduction …………………………………………………………….... 1
Alternative History, the Genre ……….……………………………………………..... 2
“The Story Behind The Plot Against America” …………………………………….... 7
Thesis Statements …………………………………………………..………………. 10
Chapter Two: Anti-Semitism and Roth’s Anti-Racist Politics ………………………. 13
Anti-Semitism in America ……………………………………………………..…… 15
Religious Anti-Semitism ………………………………………………………..….. 18
Economic Anti-Semitism ………………………………………………………..…. 23
Political Anti-Semitism …………………………………………………………..… 24
Chapter Three: Critique of President George W. Bush ……………………………… 31
A Militaristic Aggressor ………………………………………..…………….…….. 33
Media Manipulation ……………………………………………..…………………. 36
The Big Lie Technique ………………………………………………..……………. 40
Critique of Bush’s Use of “Homeland” ………………………………..…………… 42
Why Is Human History Saturated with Massacres? ………..………………………. 48
Chapter Four: The Age of Fear ………………………………………………………... 54
Theorizing Post-9/11 Fear ……………………………..…………………………… 55
Mocking the Age of Fear ………………………………..………………………….. 60
Chapter Five: Conclusion ……………………………………………………………… 70
Works Cited …………………………………………………………………………….. 74

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