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研究生:葉崇文
研究生(外文):Chung-WenYeh
論文名稱:老年人的視覺空間工作記憶訓練效果
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Visuospatial Working Memory Training in Elders
指導教授:陳振宇陳振宇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jenn-Yeu Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:心理學系認知科學碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:認知老化腦適能視覺空間工作記憶認知訓練
外文關鍵詞:cognitive agingbrain fitnessvisual-spatial working memorycognitive training
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  人口老化已是全球趨勢,如何維持高齡者的生活品質更成為了近來的熱門議題。而「工作記憶」作為人類最重要也最受年齡影響的認知功能之一,一直吸引著科學家或臨床研究者們找出解決其退化的方法。由於視覺空間工作記憶受年齡的衝擊比語音工作記憶更為明顯,本研究旨在探討視覺空間工作記憶作業在高齡者身上的訓練效果,利用視覺空間工作記憶作業進行訓練,並以中央執行功能測驗、與訓練不同的視覺空間工作記憶測驗、語音工作記憶測驗等三者當作效標檢驗訓練效果。研究結果顯示經過為期四周共十次的訓練後,視覺空間工作記憶有顯著的直接訓練效果,然而語音工作記憶卻在工作記憶測驗效果未達顯著的情況下有顯著改善,與研究假設所預期的語音工作記憶表現因視覺空間工作記憶作業應用到執行功能而改善有出入。可能的原因來自於執行功能測驗與訓練作業的相似性低於語音工作記憶與訓練作業的相似性、控制組測驗設計,或是執行功能其實是個可切割為語音及視覺空間兩個獨立部分的系統,因此訓練作業與效標作業並未動用相同的執行功能。縱然執行功能進步未達顯著,所有的後測校正平均數表現依舊顯示訓練組表現較控制組佳的趨勢,支持高齡者依然具有認知彈性,並且視覺空間工作記憶訓練在高齡者身上確實具有一定的效果。
Population Aging has been a world trend and how to keep the quality of life in old age has also been a popular issue. As one of human’s most essential and one of the most sensitive cognitive functions that would be affected by age, scientists or clinics have been trying to find out the solution of age-related decline of “working memory” for a while. Through early studies, visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) is more sensitive to age than verbal working (VWM) memory. So the major purpose of this research is to figure out the effect of VSWM training in elders. In addition to VSWM tasks, executive function (EF) tests and VWM tests are also chosen to be criterion tests. The result shows that after 10 sessions of training, the direct training effect is found in VSWM performance. Against the hypothesis, VWM performance improves significantly even EF test doesn’t show statistical significance. One possible reason is that the similarity between EF tests and training tasks is lower than verbal test and training tasks. The design of control group could be another factor. Or, it is because that EF is modality dependent, which means it can be separated into verbal and visual-spatial parts. So, there’s no overlapping use of EF on training and criterion tests. Although EF performance doesn’t show significantly improves, all adjusted mean score of posttests show that the improvement of training group is larger than control group. We can assume that cognitive plasticity can still be found in elder people and VSWM training could positively influence the whole cognitive functions of elders to a certain extent.
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
誌謝 III
目錄 V
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
第1章 前言 1
第2章 研究背景及研究問題 3
第1節 人口老化現象及常見的因應策略 3
第2節 認知訓練及腦適能:概念、策略、及其重要性 9
壹 認知彈性 9
貳 腦適能 10
第3章 老年認知退化的現象及其理論上的解釋 12
第1節 老年認知退化的現象 12
壹 老年認知退化的現象與證據 12
貳 受年齡影響最嚴重的認知功能 15
第2節 「工作記憶」理論 17
第3節 「工作記憶」的重要性 19
第4節 老年「工作記憶」的退化 21
第4章 「工作記憶」訓練及其對提升老年認知功能的幫助:已有的相關研究及其限制 22
第1節 「工作記憶」可以訓練嗎? 22
壹 核心訓練與策略訓練 22
貳 工作記憶可以被訓練嗎? 23
參 工作記憶訓練的轉移效果 23
第2節 「工作記憶」訓練對提升老年認知功能的幫助:已有的相關研  究 25
第3節 先前研究的限制 28
壹 先前研究的限制 28
第5章 本研究的目的及研究假設 29
壹 訓練作業的表現逐次上升 30
貳 三項效標測驗皆展現出訓練效果 30
參 三項效標測驗的後測分數有正相關 31
第6章 方法 32
第1節 受試者與設備 32
壹 受試者招募 32
貳 設備 32
第2節 測驗材料及訓練流程 33
壹 簡易知能測驗與前後測 33
貳 訓練作業 39
參 控制組 46
肆 訓練流程 46
第7章 結果 47
第1節 受試者 47
壹 受試者摘要 47
貳 訓練組與控制組在同一個起跑點上嗎? 47
第2節 訓練效果 49
壹 訓練作業 49
貳 效標測驗 50
第8章 討論與結論 56
第1節 研究結果摘要 56
第2節 討論 57
壹 訓練作業的難度 57
貳 為何執行功能測驗效果未達顯著,語音工作記憶仍有訓練效果? 57
參 三項效標測驗間的關係 59
第3節 給未來研究的建議 60
第4節 結論 61
第9章 參考文獻 62
附錄一 腦適能軟體開發 68
第1節 市場現況及效益 68
壹 市場現況 68
貳 預期效益 69
第2節 原型製作 71
壹 開發平台與遊戲設計 71
貳 介面易用性評估 72
參 軟體的下一步 74
附錄二 26個過去的工作記憶訓練研究整理表 75

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