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研究生:張智勝
研究生(外文):Chi-ShengChang
論文名稱:以質性研究方法探究大學生使用機車與大眾運輸工具之態度 -以高雄師範大學為例
論文名稱(外文):Using Qualitative Methods to Understand the Attitudes of College Students toward the Use of Motorcycles and Public Transport - a Case Study from National Kaohsiung Normal University
指導教授:李子璋李子璋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzu-Chang Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:都市計劃學系碩博士班
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:都市規劃學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:228
中文關鍵詞:機車使用大眾運輸使用質性方法習慣旅運社會化
外文關鍵詞:use of motorcycleuse of public transportqualitative methodhabittravel-socialization
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高雄市大眾運輸使用長期偏低,近年來高雄市交通管理機關積極落實大眾運輸的 相關建設和促進措施,期望高雄市成為以大眾運輸為主的都市,相對而言,高雄市卻也是我國機車持有與使用率最高的地區,機車為高雄市區民眾日常習慣的運具,此機車和大眾運輸使用相互對比的狀況,可做為一個探討的主題。
近期行為決策相關研究對個人習慣行為的論述,與高雄市民運具使用狀況相互一致,然而,新興的關注開始著重社會環境對個人產生旅運社會化(travel - socialization)的影響,因此本研究從高雄市機車與大眾運輸使用的狀況,以及,前述兩行為相關理論進行研究的發想,於是確立高雄師範大學生(後簡稱高師大)能提供本研究對運具使用主題的探討,原因在於:一、高師大學生的運具使用狀況類似於高雄市民的整體表現-機車日常使用大眾運輸非日常使用;二、位於市區的高師大和平校區周邊擁有密集且步行可及的大眾運輸環境;三、高師大學生社群多為非在地學生組成,能夠提供本研究理解不同學生運具使用認知趨於一致的狀況;四、多數學生剛接觸或學習機車使用,而可以提供機車使用認知的形成過程;五、多數學生剛脫離家庭自主生活,而對週遭環境較為好奇,對事物有較為鮮明的認知感受。鑑於以上,高師大學生所具有的條件,能夠進行運具使用行為和高雄市區運具使用環境課題的探究,因此,本研究凝聚的研究問題為:一、高師大學生在大眾運輸服務密集的環境下使用機車的考量;二、來自不同生活背景的個人於高雄市運具使用的認知歷程;三、造成個人運具使用認知改變和形成的可能影響來源。
本研究以質性方法做為研究工具,主要原因在於本研究問題涉及個人決策能力、連續的認知過程和多元的影響來源,此可能對應鉅細靡遺且連續的個體旅運需求資料庫,可供分析之資料即遭受限制,更難以透過有效的量性分析方法獲得結果;因此本研究以質性方法的半結構式訪談,將研究問題拆解為細部的訪談大綱進而獲得一手資料,透過人工轉謄成可供閱讀的逐字稿,以歸納的方式建構高師大學生對機車和大眾運輸使用的整體態度。
本研究結果直接說明機車和大眾運輸在各種生活情境下被認知到的有用性(usefulness),高雄市區的整體環境和機車使用者個人的相互調適,機車能夠自在於高雄市區中快速移動,相對的,大眾運輸使用者於高雄都市環境的調適不佳,更礙於整體旅運服務對大眾運輸使用的諸多限制和不友善,造成個人將大眾運輸用於特定目的或直接忽略該旅運方案,此不同運具使用的有用性透過旅運社會化的媒介-家庭、同儕和社會觀察,影響個人開始學習、適應或改變,而獲得機車日常使用的認知,也讓個人形成大眾運輸非日常使用的認知,此認知的形成甚至存在「旅運再社會化(travel-resocialization)」的狀況。最後基於研究成果,本研究歸納運具使用行為是個人、運具使用特性和社會環境相互影響而形成的結果。
鑑於最後的研究成果,本研究認為高雄現況都市環境可能不具有大眾運輸日常使用的條件,然而高雄市區的整體環境若無進行實質的改變,則可能提供運具使用習慣不斷發生的穩定生活情境,因此暫時性介入措施-市場行銷策略或不符合使用者需求的長期性介入措施-大眾捷運,對高雄市整體機車使用習慣的轉用效果可能有很大的侷限性,本研究於是提出習慣消融(unfreeze)的運具轉用介入原則:衝擊機車習慣認知到的使用優點,發展機車使用的缺點;並奠定日常使用大眾運輸的基礎發展環境,此即指涉高雄市既有旅運環境的整體改變,本研究建議高雄市大眾運輸發展最優先的方針,即重新定位地面和地下大眾運輸的旅運服務,建議將地面大眾運輸形式做為日常使用的服務定位,進行公車專用道相關基盤設施的興闢,且將服務路網融入高雄的都市環境,並進一步設計出簡易實用的大眾運輸使用資訊,以確立大眾運輸發展的基礎環境和可能的大眾運輸使用習慣,再以拖吊、停車收費、道路縮減、路權規範、加強執法的措施進行機車使用習慣的衝擊。
The utility rate of public transportation in Kaohsiung city is low in long-term observation. In recent year, the Kaohsiung city government actively promotes the associate facilities of public transportation, hoping that Kaohsiung city can become a convenient city with good public transport system. However, according to the transport result, there is no significant increase in the public use of transportation. There is even vicious circle of finance problem in public transport service. On the other hand, with the highest utility rate of motorcycle and motorcycle density on the street, motorcycle becomes the main transportation choice to citizen in Kaohsiung city. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the reasons why citizens choose motorcycle instead of public transportation and discuss the vehicle choice of citizen in Kaohsiung by investigating the utility rate of transportation tools and comparing the difference between each other.
The study focuses on the investigation of citizen lifestyle according to personal experience and observation, also bases on social environment effect theory. Therefore, my study object is students in National Kaohsiung Normal University. The reason to study university student’s behavior is due to some reasons. First, the vehicle using behavior (take motorcycle as main transportation choice) of student is similar to other Kaohsiung citizens. Second, there is high density of public transportations such as bus station, train station and MRT which provides many transportation choices to students. Third, the student community consists of students from other cities. Forth, college students can provide the process of rider’s behavior from decision of using motorcycle, starting to ride motorcycle and the effect of the situation as high-density motorcycles in study environment due to their experience as first time to ride motorcycles in life. Fifth, most of the university students are independently away from their family and curious to the living environment with vivid perspective. Therefore, it is suitable to study university students in National Kaohsiung Normal University by understanding their mode choice behavior and the situation of public transportation in Kaohsiung. The study tends to solve the following questions, first, why university students choose motorcycle in a place with dense public transportation, second, what is the difference of mode choice behaviors between individuals from different living backgrounds, and third, what would be the reason that causes the change of mode choices?
The study uses semi-structured interview in qualitative method by asking detailed questions to obtain critical information. Every record is translated into transcript and collected systematically in order to form the standard of university student’s attitude toward the use of motorcycle and public transportation.
The study result directly explains the usefulness of motorcycle and public transportation under every life situation, the condition of social environment and the personal fixing ability during the travel of motorcycles in order to travel rapidly on the street in Kaohsiung city. On the contrary, users in public transportation are difficult to fit in urban environment in Kaohsiung city. The restriction and unfriendly design of public transportation in Kaohsiung becomes the main reasons to cause the difficulty even directly cause the specific using purpose of other people and the neglect of choices.
The usefulness of motorcycles and public transportation affect people to change their behavior by learning, fitting in, or changing attitude. through the media of travel socialization (family, company, social observation). Therefore, the study reaches the result that motorcycle is the most suitable transportation choice in Kaohsiung. The situation also forms the recognition of citizen that public transportation is not suitable for daily use. This forming process even exists the situation of travel-resocialization.
According to the effect of Kaohsiung social environment on the recognition of personal vehicle usage and the characteristics of vehicles, the result of personal usage behavior is coherence through social interaction and process of learning. The study result infers that the public transportation might not be suitable for the daily use in urban environment condition of Kaohsiung city due to the habit theory. Therefore, the limitation of transfer effect in motorcycle using behavior might happen when the temporary change is proceeding. The study further provides strategy of unfreeze habit which may impact on the recognition of motorcycle using behavior and build up the basic environment of public transportation development. The process will involve the total change of Kaohsiung downtown. The study suggests that the priority development strategy in public transportation is to re-orientate the purpose of transportation service and re-design the transportation form as daily-use service. The design of bus driveway, building up the infrastructure and the organization of the utility information in public transportation are recommended. The quality of public transportation is needed to maintain by managements such as vehicles will be towed while illegally parked, parking bill and right of way, road capacity reduction et al. By promoting the public transportation, more impacts on the motorcycle using habit will happen but is positive.
第一章 緒論 1-1
第一節 研究緣起與動機 1-1
第二節 研究目的 1-4
第三節 名詞定義 1-5
第二章 文獻回顧 2-1
第一節 旅運行為決策的相關探究 2-1
一、旅運行為探究之脈絡 2-1
二、旅運行為特質 2-2
第二節 機車使用相關文獻 2-9
一、機車的基本特性 2-9
二、機車使用者的駕駛行為 2-11
三、機車使用相關的行為研究 2-12
第三節 大眾運輸使用相關文獻 2-18
一、旅運者的態度對大眾運輸使用的影響 2-18
二、私人運具使用者轉用大眾運輸之可能 2-20
第四節 綜合討論 2-24
一、行為決策的特質 2-24
二、本研究對機車和大眾運輸使用行為的認知基礎 2-25
三、社會環境對運具使用的影響 2-26
第三章 研究方法 3-1
第一節 研究方式 3-1
一、選擇質性研究的理由 3-1
二、本研究採用的質性方法-半結構式訪談 3-2
第二節 研究對象和資料收集 3-3
一、受訪者條件 3-3
二、研究對象的來源,徵詢和邀請 3-5
三、資料收集的過程 3-6
第三節 資料整理與品質 3-11
一、一手資料品質 3-11
二、訪談資料綜整過程 3-12
三、研究者的反身性思考 3-13
第四章 研究結果 4-1
第一節 高師大學生使用機車所認知到的優缺點 4-1
一、高師大學生使用機車所認知到的優點 4-1
二、高師大學生使用機車所認知到的缺點 4-23
第二節 高師大學生使用大眾運輸所認知到的優缺點 4-33
一、高師大學生使用市公車所認知到的優點 4-33
二、高師大學生使用捷運所認知到的優點 4-34
三、高師大學生使用大眾運輸整體所認知到的其他優點 4-36
四、高師大學生使用市公車所認知到的缺點 4-39
五、高師大學生使用捷運所認知到的缺點 4-47
六、高師大學生大眾運輸轉乘所認知到的缺點 4-52
七、高師大學生使用大眾運輸整體所認知到的其他缺點 4-54
第三節 高師大學生使用機車的原因 4-67
一、原居地普遍私人運具使用環境對個人運具使用態度的形塑4-67
二、高師大生活中同儕的影響 4-77
三、機車使用的環境認知利於日常旅運決策 4-84
四、高雄市區利於騎機車的相關影響環境 4-94
五、對整體大眾運輸使用擁有不信任、不實用、不愉快的經驗4-98
六、擁有機車打造屬於自己的生活 4-105
第四節 高師大學生使用大眾運輸的原因 4-108
一、原居地大眾運輸環境對個人運具使用態度的形塑 4-108
二、大學生活初期的交通選擇 4-115
三、較願意使用高雄市大眾運輸的個人特質 4-117
四、預先排定的目的和特定的需求 4-119
五、高雄市大眾運輸對個人的一些意義 4-124
第五章 結論與建議 5-1
第一節 討論與結論 5-1
一、高師大學生主要態度內容對運具使用的影響 5-1
二、高雄市區穩定的運具使用環境所產生之習慣性認知 5-13
三、高雄都市社會環境對不同的個人所造成的認知影響 5-16
四、社會學習而形塑個人運具使用認知 5-19
五、轉用大眾運輸的可能 5-20
第二節 高雄市大眾運輸發展的建議內容 5-23
一、重新定位高雄市不同大眾運輸系統的服務目的 5-23
二、可能適合高雄市日常生活使用的大眾運輸形式 5-24
三、建議高雄市大眾運輸發展的優先重點建設 5-25
四、機車管理的配套可能-公司行號業務用途和個人用途的區5-27
五、機車使用的可能管制措施 5-27
第三節 研究限制、反省與後續研究建議 5-28
一、研究限制 5-28
二、研究反省 5-28
三、後續研究建議 5-29

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附錄
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網站資料
1.Sociology.about.com (2012),http://www. Sociology.about.com
2.中央氣象局網站 (2012),http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V7/index.htm
3.交通部全球資訊網 (2012),民國100年民眾日常生活運具使用調查,
http://wwwt.motc.gov.tw/ch/home.jsp?id=54&parentpath=0,6
4.交通部全球資訊網 (2012),民國100年交通部統計年報,
http://www.motc.gov.tw/
5.全國法規資料庫 (2012),http://law.moj.gov.tw/
6.高雄市交通局全球資訊網 (2012),http://www.tbkc.gov.tw/policy-01.asp
7.高雄市苓雅區公所全球資訊網 (2012),http://lingya.kcg.gov.tw
8.高雄市政府統計處網站 (2012),http://kcgdg.kcg.gov.tw/

特殊軟體
1.MAXQDA 10 [Computer software]. Berlin: VERBI GmbH.
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