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研究生:劉又升
研究生(外文):Yu-Sheng Liu
論文名稱:應用歸納之決策規則於永續旅遊認證上
論文名稱(外文):Decision Rules Induction for Sustainable Tourism Certification
指導教授:黃俊哲黃俊哲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Che Huang
口試委員:丁冰和梁文耀曾子良
口試委員(外文):Ping-Ho TingWen-Yau LiangTzu-Liang Tseng
口試日期:2013-06-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學系
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:永續旅遊認證系統約略集合規則歸納法概念階層
外文關鍵詞:Sustainable TourismCertification SystemRough Set TheoryRule InductionConcept Hierarchy
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:351
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  • 下載下載:41
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
近年來,隨著永續旅遊逐漸發展成一重要的議題,旅遊業為了能提高產業的環境與社會層面的績效,許多旅遊業開始基於環境、經濟、社會三層面注重永續旅遊的概念,因此需要有一機制來驗證、規範永續旅遊,永續旅遊認證的概念才逐漸成形。由於永續旅遊認證是由眾多的指標、標準根據不同國家、不同地區制訂屬於自己區域之認證而成,且各項指標、標準並非在同一水平上可衡量計算,在這前提下提供歸納的決策規則給旅遊業者有一定上的困難,因此需要有一方法可衡量不同水平的元素。本研究以約略集合方法為基礎,目的是提供永續旅遊認證的歸納之決策規則給旅遊業者,作為旅遊業制定方針或政策的決策考量規範;但傳統約略集合在階層架構和永續旅遊認證應用上的不足,由於真實世界中的資訊多為階層性的資訊,因為階層性的架構主要能儲存更多的資料,有助於在挖掘資料時能產生更細節的資訊。由於傳統的約略集合方法並未能解決階層性架構的問題,因此本研究提出屬性概念階層化的方式,套用在約略集合中一般條件屬性和決策屬性上的約略集合概念階層法(Rough Set of Concept Hierarchical, RSCH),以較能符合真實世界的事實;概念階層的架構透過約略集合和權重的搭配,並透過覆蓋率和準確率以及有效指數的檢驗,找出最適當層級的資料,歸納出能夠佐以旅遊業在永續旅遊認證的決策規則。
In recent years, sustainable tourism become to an important issue. Tourism industry in order to improve the environmental and social dimensions of performance, many tourism industries focus on environmental, economic, social of three aspects of the sustainable tourism, therefore, it is needed to have a mechanism to validate and standardize sustainable tourism, the sustainable tourism certification concept was gradually taking a shape. As sustainable tourism certification is comprised of numerous indicators and standards, and according to different countries, different regions developed their own area certification. The indicators and standards are not on the same level that can measurable and summarized them. In this context, providing the decision-making Rules to the tourism industry that have some difficulties, that is why needed for a method to measure the different levels of elements. In this thesis, it is based on rough set method, the purpose is to provide a sustainable tourism certification induction of decision rules to the tourism industry that develop guidelines or policies by decision-making considerations norms. But the traditional rough set is the lack of the hierarchy and sustainable tourism certification application; the information in the real world as much is the hierarchical form because the data of hierarchical structure can store more data that when dig out of data can produce more detailed information. As the traditional rough set method does not resolve the hierarchical structure problem, so in this thesis propose the attribute that have concept hierarchical, to apply the conditional attributes and decision attributes in the rough set (Rough Set of Concept Hierarchical, RSCH), it is suitable to meet the real-world fact. The concept hierarchical framework that through rough set and strength weight, coverage index, accuracy index and Usefulness Index examine, to identify the most appropriate level of information can be summarized in sustainable tourism certification combined with tourism decision rules .
誌 謝 i
摘 要 ii
Abstract iii
1. 導論 1
1.1 動機與背景 1
1.2 研究闡述 2
1.3 研究組織 3
2. 文獻回顧 4
2.1 永續旅遊認證 4
2.2 基於規則支援的決策 8
2.2.1 規則歸納和約略集合理論 9
2.2.2 約略集合理論 10
2.2.3 傳統約略集合方法的議題 12
3. 研究方法 17
3.1 概念階層之結構 17
3.2 概念階層於約略集合 19
3.3 RSCH之層級搜尋程序定理 20
3.4 RSCH演算法的搜尋程序 25
3.5 準確率、覆蓋率、有效指數 33
3.5.1 準確率、覆蓋率 34
3.5.2 有效指數 34
4. 研究案例 43
4.1 研究案例計算過程 50
4.2 各決策規則之意涵 63
4.3 覆蓋率、準確率、有效指數計算 65
4.4 結論 69
5. 結論 70
參考文獻 72
附錄一 78
附錄二 81
附錄三 84

圖目錄
圖 1 - 1 本研究過程之說明示意圖 3
圖 2 - 1 概念階層屬性之表示圖 14
圖 2 - 2 Global reporting initiative(GRI)的階層結構框架 15
圖 2 - 3 聯合國永續發展委員會(UNCSD)建立之永續指標框架 15
圖 3 - 1 決策屬性之概念階層 17
圖 3 - 2 決策表之概念階層 19
圖 3 - 3 概念階層搜尋程序示意圖 21
圖 3 - 4 本研究RSCH之搜尋程序主體流程圖(1) 25
圖 3 - 5 本研究RSCH之搜尋程序細節流程圖(2) 26
圖 4 - 1 Certification for Sustainable Tourism (CST)的標章 44
圖 4 - 2 Sustainable Tourism Eco-Certification Program (STEP)的標章 44
圖 4 - 3 本研究案例之永續旅遊認證概念層級架構 45
圖 4 - 4 研究案例之條件屬性A1詳細概念階層架構 45
圖 4 - 5 研究案例之條件屬性A2詳細概念階層架構 47
圖 4 - 6 研究案例之條件屬性A3詳細概念階層架構 48
圖 4 - 7 研究案例之決策屬性O1詳細概念階層架構 49
圖 4 - 8 本研究案例之永續旅遊認證概念層級架構(1) 50
圖 4 - 9 合併衝突物件之調整決策屬性過程圖 53
圖 4 - 10 合併支持量不足的物件之調整決策屬性過程圖 56
圖 4 - 11 合併衝突物件Object(16 & 18 & 20, 17)之調整決策屬性過程圖 60
圖 4 - 12 研究案例之有效指數層級比較示意圖 66
圖 4 - 13 研究案例之傳統發法的有效指數層級比較示意圖 68

表目錄
表 2 - 1 目前通過GSTC核准的永續旅遊認證系統 6
表 2 - 2 決策表之表示法 11
表 2 - 3 資料集合之表示法 11
表 3 - 1 原始例子-Axiom1 22
表 3 - 2 多層級資訊例子-Axiom1 22
表 3 - 3 概念階層的決策規則結果 22
表 3 - 4 原始決策表-Axiom2 23
表 3 - 5 決策屬性往上層級調整之決策表 23
表 3 - 6 原始決策表- Axiom3 23
表 3 - 7 調整條件屬性之決策表 24
表 3 - 8 物件合併之決策表 24
表 3 - 9 原始決策表 30
表 3 - 10 未調整例子之決策規則表 30
表 3 - 11 經過Axiom 2.調整後的決策表 31
表 3 - 12 經過Axiom 2調整後產出的決策規則表 32
表 3 - 13 依據Axiom 3將物件進行分類之決策表 32
表 3 - 14 經過Axiom 2調整後的決策表 33
表 3 - 15 最終的決策規則表 33
表 3 - 16 範例3-2之決策規則表 35
表 3 - 17 未調整例子之準確率及覆蓋率 35
表 3 - 18 經過Axiom 2調整後之準確率及覆蓋率 37
表 3 - 19 最終的決策規則表之準確率及覆蓋率 40
表 3 - 20 最終的決策規則表之有效指數 40
表 4 - 1 研究案例之條件屬性A1詳細概念階層架構 46
表 4 - 2 研究案例之條件屬性A2詳細概念階層架構 47
表 4 - 3 研究案例之條件屬性A3詳細概念階層架構 48
表 4 - 4 研究案例之決策屬性O1詳細概念階層架構 49
表 4 - 5 本研究案例之決策表 50
表 4 - 6 刪除Object(3, 4)和Object(19, 21)Level 4資料之決策表 54
表 4 - 7 合併Object(3,4)和Object(19,21)之決策表 54
表 4 - 8 各相同父節點,不同子節點之物件類別 55
表 4 - 9 刪除支持量不足之最底層屬性資料的物件之決策 57
表 4 - 10 合併刪除底層資料的物件之決策表 57
表 4 - 11 刪除Object 16 & 18 & 20和Object 17 Level 4資料的決策表 60
表 4 - 12 合併Object 16 & 18 & 20和Object 17 決策表 60
表 4 - 13 本研究案例之最終概念層級決策規則表 61
表 4 - 14 本研究案例之最終決策規則 62
表 4 - 15 研究案例之覆蓋率、準確率、有效指數 65
表 4 - 16 研究案例之上層有效指數 66
表 4 - 17 研究案例之傳統方法的覆蓋率、準確率、有效指數 67
表 4 - 18 研究案例之傳統方法的上層有效指數 68
表A - 1 永續旅遊指標說明 81
表A - 2 傳統約略集合之決策表 90
表A - 3 傳統約略集合之決策規則表 90





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