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研究生:魏雨辰
研究生(外文):Yu-Chen Wei
論文名稱:土壤液化引致的隧道上浮行為: 以離心模型試驗進行模擬與簡易隧道上浮位移評估方法
論文名稱(外文):Liquefaction Induced Tunnel Uplifting: An Investigation of Centrifuge Modeling and A Simplified Estimation of Uplift Displacement
指導教授:李崇正李崇正引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Jung Lee
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:336
中文關鍵詞:離心模型試驗振動台土壤液化隧道上浮力
外文關鍵詞:centrifuge modelingshaking table testliquefactiontunneluplift
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本研究呈現一系列的離心模型試驗模擬隧道在液化砂土中的行為與簡易的隧道上浮位移評估方法。在過往的致災性地震中,常發現人孔、地下維生管線等因土壤液化,而造成上浮破壞的現象。對隧道而言,也存在地震引致砂層液化而造成隧道上浮的可能性。本研究使用地工離心機及振動台等試驗設備,在80 g的離心力場下,進行一系列離心模型振動台試驗,來模擬土壤液化引致的隧道上浮反應,觀察破壞模式,並進而提出評估隧道上浮量的方法。
模型試驗的結果發現,隧道於液化土層中的上浮量與其輸入振動的振幅大小、發生液化土層深度的增加而增加;並隨著土層的相對密度以及隧道埋置深度之增加而降低。隧道發生上浮破壞時,在隧道兩側壁土層中發現傾斜的滑動破壞面,而非日本道路橋設計規範所建議的垂直滑動破壞面。作用在隧道底部的超額孔隙水壓力,會隨著振動振幅的增大與基振力作用延時的增長而逐漸的增加。靜水壓與超額孔隙水壓是推動隧道上浮的主要作用力。但在隧道上浮的同時,隧道會因快速上浮的緣故與下方土層分離,此間隙會造成隧道周邊的超額孔隙水壓的下降或增量趨緩。因此在振動期間,隧道周圍的超額孔隙水壓增減與隧道上浮量,具有互為耦合的關係。受到土壤液化的影響,隧道與土壤間的互制效應不明顯,因此並不會加劇隧道上浮的程度。以地中連續壁阻隔外側土壤擠入隧道下方,可以將隧道上浮量減半。
根據離心振動台試驗結果與Sasaki 等人(2004)的試驗結果,本論文提出因土壤液化引致隧道上浮量的簡易評估方法。此方法可有效評估隧道上浮曲線的斜率、隧道上浮的起始時間與終止時間。因此透過本方法可以評估地震時,矩形隧道在液化土層中的上浮量,提供工程師評估隧道上浮量或設計防阻隧道上浮的工程對策的參考。

This dissertation presents the centrifuge modeling tests of embedded tunnels in liquefiable soil and the simplified estimation of tunnel uplift displacement. When the seismic wave is propagating through a loose saturated sand deposit, the seismic wave would disturb the loose sand and produce the excess pore pressure. In the worst scenario, the soil liquefaction happens. If a rectangular tunnel is embedded in the liquefying soil, the excess pore pressure acts on its bottom during the earthquake to drive the tunnel moving upward. In this study, a series of centrifuge modeling tests were conducted in an acceleration of 80 g to investigate the failure mechanism of tunnel uplifting.
Through the tests, the tunnel uplifting failure associated with the inclined slip surface was discovered. The tunnel uplift displacement increased as the amplitude of input motion and the liquefaction depth increased. The tunnel uplift displacement decreased as the relative density of soil and the buried depth of tunnel increased. The soil-tunnel interaction was insignificant to the tunnel uplifting behavior especially in the case that the liquefaction depth was deeper than the level of tunnel bottom surface.
A simplified uplift prediction of tunnel was proposed based on the observations in this study and the test results reported by Sasaki et al. (2004). The simplified uplift prediction of tunnel, SUPT, is able to determine the starting time and the ending time of tunnel uplifting as well as the slope of tunnel uplift displacement curve if the irregular earthquake motion is converted into the equivalent sinusoidal motion in advance. Thus, SUPT can be used to estimate the complete time-history of tunnel uplift displacement. The evaluated tunnel uplift displacement was consistent with the measured results especially for the cases of large shaking events. Use of cut-off walls to prevent the surrounding soil squeezing into the bottom of tunnel can effectively reduce the tunnel uplift displacement by half.

Abstract I
摘要 II
Contents III
List of Tables VII
List of Figures IXX
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Research goal 2
1.3 Organization of dissertation 3
Chapter 2 Literature Review 5
2.1 Historical cases of buried structure uplift failure 5
2.2 1 g shaking table test 6
2.3 Centrifuge modeling tests 10
2.4 Numerical simulations 15
2.5 Summaries 17
Chapter 3 Centrifuge Modeling 29
3.1 Principles of centrifuge modeling 29
3.1.1 Centrifugal acceleration field 29
3.1.2 Scaling laws 30
3.2 Centrifuge facilities 34
3.2.1 NCU geotechnical centrifuge 34
3.2.2 Data acquisition system 35
3.2.3 Servo-hydraulic shaking table 35
3.2.4 Instruments 36
3.2.5 Design of tunnel model 38
3.2.6 Laminar container 39
3.2.7 Over-top pluviator 40
3.3 Soil property 41
3.3.1 Fundamental properties of test soil 41
3.3.2 Dynamic properties of soil 42
Chapter 4 Determination of Equivalent Uniform Earthquake Motion for Centrifuge Modeling 63
4.1 Introduction 63
4.2 Proposed representing method 65
4.2.1 P-M cumulative damage hypothesis 65
4.2.2 Seed's representing method of Neq 66
4.3 Equivalent uniform input base motion 68
4.3.1 Equivalent number of cycles 69
4.3.2 Peak base acceleration amplitude 69
4.3.3 Predominant frequency 71
4.4 Summaries 72
Chapter 5 Centrifuge Modeling on Tunnel Uplift Behavior 85
5.1 Preparation of model 85
5.2 Testing plan 87
5.2.1 Introduction of testing conditions 87
5.2.2 Test procedure and instrumentation plan 88
5.2.3 Definition of coordinate system 91
5.3 Test results 91
5.3.1 Pilot tests and seismic response of tunnel 91
5.3.2 Excess pore pressure ratio 96
5.3.3 Tunnel acceleration responses 97
5.3.4 Soil-tunnel interaction 101
5.3.5 Lateral displacement of laminar container 105
5.3.6 Correction of tunnel uplift measurement 106
5.3.7 Tunnel uplift displacement 107
5.3.8 Ground surface displacement 118
Chapter 6 Simplified Uplift Prediction of Tunnel 173
6.1 Concept of SUPT 173
6.2 Slope function of SUPT 175
6.2.1 Slope of shallow buried tunnel TUD curve 175
6.2.2 Slope of deep buried tunnel TUD curve 177
6.2.3 Function of slope for SUPT 179
6.3 Time function of SUPT 182
6.3.1 Starting time of TUD 182
6.3.2 Ending time of TUD 187
6.4 Summary of SUPT and prediction results 190
Chapter 7 Centrifuge Modeling on The Countermeasure for Reducing Tunnel Uplift Displacement 219
7.1 Performance of cut-off walls 219
7.2 Testing condition 220
7.3 Test results 220
7.3.1 Acceleration responses 220
7.3.2 Excess pore pressure 221
7.3.3 Tunnel uplift displacement 222
7.3.4 Bending moments on the cut-off wall 222
7.4 Suggested countermeasure design for tunnel against uplifting 223

Chapter 8 Summaries and Conclusions 233
8.1 Centrifuge modeling test results 233
8.2 Goal of future work 235
Appendix - A Data Processing Procedure and Techniques 237
A.1 Noises 238
A.1.1 Accelerometer Data 238
A.1.2 LVDT Data 239
A.1.3 PPT and strain gauge made instruments 239
A.2 Data processing procedures 240
A.2.1 Startimg time consistency modification 240
A.2.2 Smoothing 242
A.2.3 Determination of lower cut-off frequency for band-pass filter 242
A.2.4 Filtering and integrating 243
A.2.5 Post-processing for processed data 244
A.3 Results of processed data 245
A.3.1 LVDT, PPT, and EPT Data 245
A.3.2 Acceleration Data 246
A.4 Integrated acceleration recording 250
Appendix - B Earth Pressure Distribution Around Buried Tunnel 279
B.1 FLAC program and numerical model 279
B.2 Numerical simulation results 280
B.2 Numerical simulation results 280
Appendix - C An Example of SUPT Application 279
C.1 Site properties 279
C.2 Solution 280
References 295

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