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研究生:楊嵩灝
研究生(外文):Sung-hao Yang
論文名稱:在考量服務水準之線性市場中兩家競爭零售商之最佳決策問題
論文名稱(外文):Optimal Decision Problem between two Competition Retailers with Consideration of Service Level in a Linear Market
指導教授:葉英傑葉英傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ying-chieh Yeh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:工業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:52
中文關鍵詞:服務水準線性市場競爭報童模型
外文關鍵詞:Service levelLinear marketCompetitionNewsvendor model
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在這篇研究中,我們講考慮在一個線性市場中,兩家競爭廠商的最佳決策問
題;所謂的最佳決策問題包含了零售價格、商品的訂購量以及服務水準。在這篇
研究裡面所說的服務水準指的是一家廠商所宣稱能滿足前來消費顧客的比率,而
不是指服務的好壞。在定義了服務水準之後,我們的研究背景是在一條線性的市
場裡頭,有兩家競爭廠商座落在這個線性市場的兩個端點;而我們要研究的目的
是這兩家競爭廠商如何對零售價格、商品的訂購量以及服務水準做最佳的決策,
來使得其本身的期望利潤極大。因此,為了得到我們上面提到的最佳決策,我們
將建立顧客購買行為與廠商決策之間的關係,並利用報童模型與拉氏乘數方法來
建立模型尋找最佳解。
先前許多學者提出的線性市場的研究多注重於零售價格和顧客與商店之間的
距離對於消費者選擇的影響;而我們不僅探討這些已被學者提出的重要的影響,
我們再加上廠商設定的服務水準如何去影響消費者購買選擇,進而影響廠商的期
望利潤。我們希望能透過這些廠商的決策對於消費者的購買影響,去看看怎樣的
決策組合能夠使得廠商的利潤極大化。
In this study, we will consider optimal decisions problem of two competitive retailers about their price decision, order quantities decision and the service level decision in a linear market. The base situation of this linear market is consisted by two retailers which are located at the end points. To maximize the pure revenues of the two retailers, we wish to find out the optimal decisions of the retail prices, the order quantities of the product and the service level (which mean how percentage of consumers’ demand can be satisfied) of the two retailers. Therefore, for obtaining the anticipant result above mentioned, we hope to solve the problem by a variety newsvendor model and Lagrange multiplier method to see which selection combination will maximize their profit.
Unlike other literature which had been proposed, the distinct idea of this study is to consider the setting of the service level of the retailer, and how this service level affect the expected profit of the retailer. In this way, we can find out the variation of retailer’s decision of retail price and order quantities of the product when the retailer also has to consider the decision of the service level. Because of these decision variables are conditioned each other, we want to find out the optimal decision combination of these variables to maximize the expected profit of the retailer.
To discuss this phenomenon we mentioned above, we derived the expected profit function by the classical newsvendor model, to see what decisions combination will create the largest profit of them. The process of building of the expected function is as follow: When the retailer decides a service level, that can affect the decision of the retail price and the order quantities of both retailers, then affect the consumers’ demand (market share) of themselves at different decisions combination. So we will derive the relationship of these decision variables first, and then find an optimal equilibrium decision combination to maximize the expected profit of the retailer.

Content
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
Content of Figures vi
Content of Tables vi
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Background and Motivation 1
1.2. Research Objective 4
2. Literature Review 7
2.1. The Product Availability 8
2.2. The Distance between a Consumer and a Retailer 9
2.3. The Price and Distance Effects of Consumers’ Demand 11
2.4. The Linear Market 12
2.5. Newsvendor Model and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker Condition Method 12
3. The Model 14
3.1. Model Assumption 14
3.2. The Setting of the Members in this Linear City 17
3.2.1. Consumers 17
3.2.2. The Two Retailers 18
3.3. Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions 22
4. Numerical Analysis 26
4.1. Numerical Example 26
4.2. Nash Equilibrium 31
4.3. Sensitivity Analysis 33
4.3.1. The effect of search cost (k) 33
4.3.2. The effect of decisions of the other retailer (αj and Pj) 35
4.3.3. The effect of the fraud cost (t) 37
5. Conclusion and Future Research 40
5.2. Conclusion 40
5.3. Future Research 41
Reference 42

1. Bass, S., 1989, “You Can't Sell What You Don't Have,” Catalog Business (March 1), 24-25.
2. Balachander, S. and Farquhar, P. H., 1994, “Gaining More by Stocking Less: A Competitive Analysis of Product Availability,” Marketing Science, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 3-22.
3. Bernstein, F. and Federgruen, A., 2003, “Pricing and replenishment strategies in a distribution system with competing retailers.” Operations Research;51(3):409–26.
4. Consumer Reports, 1987, “Mail-Order Companies,” 52 (October), 607-614.
5. Cachon, G. P., and Lariviere, M. A., 2005, “Supply chain coordination with revenue-sharing contracts: strengths and limitations,” Management Science, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 30-44.
6. Elman, D., 1989, "Stock Service-Level Standard Urged," Supermarket News, 39, February 6, 1.
7. Germain, R. and Cooper, M. B., 1990, "How a Customer Mission Affects Company Performance," Industrial Marketing Management, 19, 47-54.
8. Lal, R. and Narasimhan, C., 1996, “The Inverse Relationship Between Manufacturerand Retailer Margins: A Theory.” Marketing Science, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 132-151
9. Mason, J. B. and Wilkinson, J. B., 1976, "Mispricing and Unavailability of Advertised Food Products in Retail Food Outlets,” Journal of Business, 49, 219-225
10. Narayanan, V. G. and Raman, A., 2005, “Agency Costs in a Supply Chain with Demand Uncertainty and Price Competition.” Management Science, Vol. 51, No. 1, January 2005, pp. 120–132.
11. Schary, P. B. and Christopher, M., 1979, “The Anatomy of a Stock-out,” Journal of Retailing, 55, 59-70.
12. Tirole, J., 1988, “The theory of industrial organization.” Cambridge: MIT Press.
13. Xiao, T. J. and Qi, X. T., 2008, “Price competition, cost and demand disruptions and coordination of a supply chain with one manufacturer and two competing retailers.” Omega. 36, 741 – 753.

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