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研究生:江得豪
研究生(外文):De-hao Jiang
論文名稱:以超臨界流體製備石墨烯/金屬複合觸媒並 探討其添加對氫化鋁鋰放氫特性的影響
論文名稱(外文):Supercritical fluid assisted synthesis of graphene/metal nanoparticle composite catalysts for improving dehydrogenation performance of LiAlH4
指導教授:李勝隆李勝隆引用關係張仍奎
指導教授(外文):Sheng-Long LeeJeng-Kuei Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:材料科學與工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:氫化鋁鋰儲氫材料石墨烯超臨界二氧化碳
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氫化鋁鋰 (LiAlH4)具有很高的氫密度,是極具潛力的儲氫材料。因此本研究嘗試改善氫化鋁鋰的放氫特性。實驗過程中分別添加各式碳材、複合觸媒及其他各式催化劑與氫化鋁鋰相互球磨,並利用熱程控脫附儀 (TPD)進行放氫實驗分析。實驗結果發現以超臨界二氧化碳(scCO2)合成之鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒擁有最佳的催化放氫性質,且效果也優於文獻上最佳的催化劑氯化釩 (VCl3)及二氧化鈦 (TiO2)。後續進行材料分析發現,此複合觸媒經由超臨界製程後,形成奈米級的鐵均勻分布於片狀的石墨烯上;與傳統化學沉積法所看到的團聚現象有顯著差異。因此尺寸效應與分布為影響催化放氫性質的重要因素。
本研究後續進行了100 oC恆溫放氫動力學研究,從實驗結果發現經球磨30分鐘後之氫化鋁鋰需10.8小時才能達到4 wt%放氫量,而添加了10 wt%鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒後,僅需10分鐘便能達到相同的放氫量。根據本研究之結果,藉由超臨界二氧化碳所合成之鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒能最有效的改善氫化鋁鋰放氫性質。

Lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4)has high hydrogen density so it’s a potential hydrogen storage materials. In this study, we tried to improve the hydrogen storage properties of LiAlH4 by ball milling process. We introduced different carbon materials, metal/carbon composites, other catalysts. According to Temperature-Programmed Desorption (TPD)analysis, We found that by Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)process synthesized Fe/Graphene composites obviously decreased the dehydrogenation temperature of LiAlH4. It’s catalytic effect better than VCl3, TiO2. By the materials analysis, between air process and scCO2 process, the later is more monodisperse than air process. So size effect and distribution play the most important role to improve catalytic properties.
At 100 oC isothermal dehydrogenation dynamics analysis, LiAlH4 (BM30 min)release 4 wt% hydrogen after 10.8 hr while LiAlH4 + 10 wt% Fe/Graphene only need 10 minute. The results of experimental indicate that the Fe/Graphene is the best catalyst for LiAlH4.

總目錄
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
總目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
一、 前言 1
二、 研究背景與文獻回顧 5
2.1儲氫材料分類 5
2.2複合型氫化物 6
2.2.1改善複合型氫化物之儲氫性質 7
2.2.2氫化鋁鋰催化劑添加之研究 8
2.3石墨烯 10
2.4複合材料添加之研究 12
2.5尺寸的影響 13
2.6超臨界二氧化碳 14
2.6.1藉由超臨界二氧化碳於碳材上擔載金屬奈米顆粒 15
三、 研究內容與方法 29
3.1各式催化劑 29
3.1.1石墨烯 29
3.1.2利用超臨界二氧化碳及傳統化學沉積法合成之複合觸媒 29
3.2混合方法與放氫性質之分析 30
3.2.1機械球磨法 30
3.2.2熱程控脫附儀 (Temperature-programmed Desorption, TPD) 31
3.3材料分析 31
3.3.1熱重分析儀 (Thermogravimetric Analysis, TGA) 31
3.3.2 X光繞射儀 (X-Ray Diffractometer, XRD) 32
3.3.3臨場X光繞射 (In-situ XRD) 32
3.3.4掃描式電子顯微鏡 (Scanning Electron Microscope, SEM) 32
3.3.5高解析掃描穿透式電子顯微鏡 (High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, HR-TEM) 32
四、 實驗結果與討論 37
4.1 LiAlH4原材料分析 37
4.2各式碳材之催化效果分析 37
4.3複合觸媒之催化效果分析 38
4.3.1各式金屬複合觸媒之催化效果分析 39
4.3.2 以各式碳材作為複合觸媒之基材並比較催化效果 40
4.4超臨界流體製程與傳統化學沉積法之效果分析 41
4.5 深入探討scCO2鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒 42
4.5.1尺寸效應 43
4.5.2與文獻最佳催化劑之催化效果比較 43
4-6 In-situ XRD分析 44
4.7 恆溫放氫動力學測試 45
五、 結論 69
六、 參考文獻 70

表目錄
表2-1 各種複合型氫化物之理論儲氫量與放氫溫度比較表。 17
表2-2 LiAlH4三階段放氫量、溫度比較表。 17
表2-3各種催化劑對LiAlH4之催化效果整理表。 18
表2-4不同碳材之導熱係數值之比較。 20
表2-5典型的有機溶劑在液態、氣態、超臨界態之物理化學特性比較。 20
表2-6超臨界流體應用於儲氫材料之文獻整理表。 21
表4-1 LiAlH4原材、LiAlH4球磨30分鐘與LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 各式碳材之放氫特性比較表。.....................................................................47
表4-2 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 各式金屬/石墨烯複合觸媒之放氫特性比較表。 47
表4-3 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 各式鐵/碳材複合觸媒之放氫特性比較表。 48
表4- 4各式碳材氧含量及比表面積 48
表4-5 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 空氣及超臨界二氧化碳製程之鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒之放氫特性比較表。 48
表4-6 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 空氣及超臨界二氧化碳製程之鎳/石墨烯複合觸媒之放氫特性比較表。 49
表4-7 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 及10 wt% 之鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒之放氫特性比較表。 49
表4-8 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 鐵粉、鐵粉/石墨烯、鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒之放氫特性比較表。 49
表4-9 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% TiO2、VCl3、鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒之放氫特性比較表。 50
表4-10 In-situ XRD各種相存在之溫度區間表。 50
表4-11 TPD分析BM30 min、2.5 wt% Ni/Graphene、2.5 wt% Fe/Graphene之第一階段放氫結束溫度比較圖。 50

圖目錄
圖1-1 1971年至2010年的全球燃料消耗量示意圖。 3
圖1-2 1971年至2010年的全球二氧化碳排放量示意圖。 3
圖1-3各種能源用於交通工具之市場趨勢圖。 4
圖1-4 以不同方式壓縮儲存4 Kg氫氣的體積比較圖。 4
圖2-1各種儲氫材料之理論重量及體積儲氫密度示意圖。.............. 22
圖2-2 LiAlH4球磨1、2、6、10小時後於130 ℃之恆溫放氫動力學曲線圖。 22
圖2-3各種奈米碳材之曲率、電負度與氫移除能關係圖。 23
圖2-4以石墨烯為基礎進而組成其他維度碳材料之示意圖。 23
圖2-5石墨烯邊緣存在之官能基示意圖。 24
圖2-6利用濕化學法將三種複合氫化物封進奈米碳管示意圖。 25
圖2-7未經處理LiAlH4及添加2 mol% 微米與奈米級Nb2O5, Cr2O3之放氫曲線圖。 26
圖2-8未經處理LiAlH4、球磨30分鐘LiAlH4及添加2 mol% 微米與奈米級TiH2之放氫曲線圖。 26
圖2-9 LiAlH4 + MgH2與LiAlH4 + nano MgH2之TPD放氫曲線圖。 27
圖2-10放氫反應曲線圖 (a)未經處理LiBH4 (b)LiBH4 + 10 wt% Pt/C, Pt-4.7 nm (c) LiBH4 + 10 wt% Pt/C, Pt-16.0 nm。 27
圖2-11二氧化碳之二維相圖。 28
圖2-12 二氧化碳之二維溫度-壓力-密度關係圖。 28
圖3-1實驗流程示意圖。... ..................................................................34
圖3-2各式複合觸媒合成及分析流程圖。 35
圖3-3超臨界流體設備示意圖。 36
圖3-4 TPD實驗設備示意圖。 36
圖4-1 LiAlH4與球磨30分鐘之TPD曲線圖。.............................. ....51
圖4-2 SEM微觀結構圖 (a) LiAlH4 (b)原材球磨30分鐘。 51
圖4-3 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% C60、碳黑、活性碳、石墨、多壁奈米碳管、石墨烯之TPD曲線圖。 52
圖4-4 SEM微觀結構圖 (a)活性碳 (b)碳黑 (c)多壁奈米碳管 (d)石墨烯。 53
圖4-5 TEM微觀結構圖 (a)scCO2 Au/Graphene (b)scCO2 Pd/MWCNTs。 53
圖4-6 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 銅、金、鈀、鎳、鐵/石墨烯各式複合觸媒之TPD曲線圖。 54
圖4-7 LiAlH4、BM30分鐘、LiAlH4 + 2.5 wt% 鐵/石墨烯之拉曼光譜分析圖 54
圖4-8 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 鐵/活性碳、碳黑、多壁奈米碳管、石墨烯各式複合觸媒之TPD曲線圖。 55
圖4-9 TEM微觀結構圖 (a)鐵/活性碳 (b)鐵/碳黑 (c)鐵/奈米碳管 (d)鐵/石墨烯。 56
圖4-10 氧含量對LiAlH4與複合觸媒之間的交互作用之影響示意圖。 57
圖4-11 奈米鐵於活性碳與石墨烯之分布情形示意圖。 57
圖4-12 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 空氣及超臨界二氧化碳製程之鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒之TPD曲線圖。 58
圖4-13 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 空氣及超臨界二氧化碳製程之鎳/石墨烯複合觸媒之TPD曲線圖。 58
圖4-14 石墨烯TEM微觀結構圖 (a)低倍率 (b)高倍率。 59
圖4-15 scCO2鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒TEM微觀結構圖 (a)低倍率 (b)高倍率(c)EDS成份分析。 59
圖4-16 air鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒TEM微觀結構圖 (a)低倍率 (b)高倍率(c)EDS成份分析。 60
圖4-17 scCO2鎳/石墨烯複合觸媒TEM微觀結構圖 (a)低倍率 (b)高倍率(c)EDS成份分析。 61
圖4-18 air鎳/石墨烯複合觸媒TEM微觀結構圖 (a)低倍率 (b)高倍率(c)EDS成份分析。 62
圖4-19 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 及10 wt% 之鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒之TPD曲線圖。 63
圖4-20 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% 鐵粉、鐵粉/石墨烯、鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒之TPD曲線圖。 63
圖4-21 LiAlH4添加2.5 wt% TiO2、VCl3、鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒之TPD曲線圖。 64
圖4-22 LiAlH4球磨30分鐘In-situ XRD圖。 65
圖4-23 LiAlH4 + 2.5 wt% 鎳/石墨烯之In-situ XRD圖。 65
圖4-24 LiAlH4 + 2.5 wt% 鐵/石墨烯之In-situ XRD圖。 66
圖4-25 LiAlH4原材、LiAlH4球磨30分鐘、LiAlH4 + 2.5 wt% 石墨烯、LiAlH4 + 30 wt% 石墨烯、LiAlH4 + 2.5 wt% 鎳/石墨烯、LiAlH4 + 2.5 wt% 鐵/石墨烯及LiAlH4 + 10 wt% 鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒於100 oC下之恆溫放氫動力學測試。 67
圖4-26 LiAlH4球磨30分鐘、LiAlH4 + 2.5 wt% TiO2、LiAlH4 + 2.5 wt% VCl3、LiAlH4 + 2.5 wt% 鐵/石墨烯及LiAlH4 + 10 wt% 鐵/石墨烯複合觸媒於100 oC下之恆溫放氫動力學測試。 68

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