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研究生:陳志榮
研究生(外文):Chih-Jung Chen
論文名稱:適用於無線感測網路的嵌入式IPv6網路堆疊開發
論文名稱(外文):Developing an Embedded IPv6 Networking Stack for Wireless Sensor Network
指導教授:陳慶瀚陳慶瀚引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Han Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系在職專班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:IPv6獨立於硬體虛擬MAC位址標頭壓縮
外文關鍵詞:IPv6hardware-independentpseudo MAC addressheader compression
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整合雲端計算與物聯網被視為未來重要的產業趨勢。IPv6協定在此一產業趨勢無疑是重要的環節。目前有許多IPv6的解決方案,都是基於某種特定應用或某種特定硬體規格,因此面對異質網路整合、低耗能與低成本物聯網應用,常有其侷限。本研究將建置一套極低硬體資源需求的嵌入式IPv6網路堆疊,我們採用Contiki uIPv6,但移除了Contiki OS並進行改良,以便降低對系統記憶體等資源的需求;同時自行設計IPv6封包標頭壓縮/解壓縮機制與虛擬MAC位址標頭,以實現低成本設備的可擴充性與網路的可連結性,最後完成與硬體無關的IPv6網路堆疊,其中,我們改良了對實體層框架的承載資料長度的要求,以提高IPv6網路堆疊的移植性,加速各種低成本連網嵌入式系統的開發時程。
實驗顯示,本研究所設計的基於2.4G RF的低成本無線感測節點與閘道器,在無Contiki OS協助下,可以成功運作改良的uIPv6網路堆疊,以進行IPv6位址設定、ICMPv6/UDP、相關網路管理機制、封包標頭壓縮/解壓縮機制與虛擬MAC位址標頭處理。無線感測節點、閘道器與遠端的資料收集中心,均能成功使用ICMPv6/UDP進行有效地的通訊。本研究成果提供快速開發低成本嵌入式IPv6聯網設備的方案,以加速物聯網的發展。

The integration of Cloud Computing and Internet of Things is considered an important trend and industry in the future. IPv6 protocol is playing a key role in the development. There are a lot of IPv6 solutions presented to fulfill either a specific application or a hardware specification. Therefore, all of them are limited at a variety of heterogeneous network interconnections, low-power consumption and low-cost networking applications. We present an embedded IPv6 networking protocol stack which is based on Contiki uIPv6 and improves the functionality of uIPv6. We separate uIPv6 from Contiki OS in order to reduce the demand of the system resources, like the memory capacity. We also design our own IPv6 packet header compression / decompression mechanisms and the pseudo MAC address header in order to improve the scalability and the network connectivity of low-cost devices. Finally, we achieve the hardware-independent IPv6 networking stack. We also reduce the requirement of the frame payload length of the physical layer to improve the portability of IPv6 networking stack and accelerate the development of a variety of low-cost networking embedded systems.
Our experiments show that the low-cost wireless sensor node and the gateway based on 2.4G RF successfully perform the improved uIPv6 networking stack in the absence of Contiki OS assistance. The wireless sensor node and the gateway can perform the IPv6 address configuration, ICMPv6 / UDP, the related network management mechanisms, the packet header compression / decompression mechanisms and the pseudo MAC address processing. The wireless sensor node, the gateway and the remote data collection center can effectively communicate each other via IPv6/ICMPv6/UDP. The research results will provide the rapid development of low-cost embedded IPv6 networking equipment, and accelerate the development of Internet of Things.

摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
目錄 iii
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1、研究背景與動機 1
1.2、研究目標 3
1.3、論文架構 4
第二章 嵌入式IPv6技術回顧 5
2.1、嵌入式系統摡述 5
2.2、嵌入式網際網路概述 6
2.3、嵌入式IPv6研究 10
2.3.1、IPv6簡介 10
2.3.2、嵌入式系統運行IPv6的現況 13
2.3.3、嵌入式系統運行IPv6的要求與限制 14
2.3.4、嵌入式TCP/IP協議開放原始碼現況 19
第三章 無線感測網路與閘道器技術 21
3.1、無線感測網路 21
3.2、無線感測網路閘道器 27
第四章 基於IPv6的無線感測網路設計 31
4.1、IPv6協議簡化 32
4.2、適配層 37
4.2.1、虛擬MAC位址標頭 37
4.2.2、IPv6封包標頭壓縮 38
4.3、無線感測節點與閘道器設計 50
4.4、資料接收軟體設計 58
第五章 基於IPv6的無線感測網路系統實作與驗證 59
5.1、硬體規格介紹 59
5.1.1、硬體模組 59
5.1.2、無線感測節點 69
5.1.3、閘道器 70
5.1.4、資料接收中心 70
5.2、軟體介紹 71
5.2.1、嵌入式軟體 71
5.2.2、資料接收中心 71
5.3、基於IPv6的無線感測網路系統實作 71
5.3.1、無線感測網路節點 71
5.3.2、閘道器 72
5.3.3、資料收集軟體 74
5.4、系統整合驗證 74
5.4.1、重複位址偵測、路由邀請/路由公告 78
5.4.2、閘道器之芳鄰邀請/芳鄰公告、Echo請求/Echo回覆 82
5.4.3、無線感測節點之芳鄰邀請/芳鄰公告、Echo請求/Echo回覆 87
5.4.4、無線感測節點之UDP溫度感測資料 92
5.5、系統性能評估 95
第六章 結論與未來展望 101
6.1、結論 101
6.2、未來展望 102
參考文獻 105

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[16] Bluetooth , IEEE 802.15.1,< http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG1.html>.
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[22] John Gantz , The Embedded Internet: Methodology and Findings,IDC, January,2009.
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[26] IPv4, <http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc791.txt>.
[27] ALE,< http://www.ietf.org/wg/concluded/ale.html >.
[28] RFC 1883,< http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1883.txt>.
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[30] RFC 2373,< http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2373.txt >.
[31] RFC 2460,< http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2460.txt>.
[32] RFC 1933.< http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1933.txt>.
[33] RFC 2185,<http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2185.txt>.
[34] RFC 3056,< http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3056.txt>.
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[43] Project uC/IP,< http://ucip.sourceforge.net/>.
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[45] Kevin Ashton: That 'Internet of Things' Thing. In: RFID Journal, 22 July 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
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[49] Shadrach Joseph Roundy, Energy Scavenging for Wireless Sensor Nodes with a Focus on Vibration to Electricity Conversion, University of California, Berkeley ,2003.
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[57] Jean-Philippe Vasseur;Adam Dunkels ,Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP - The next internet, Morgan Kaufmann,June 2010.
[58] IEEE 802.3,< http://www.ieee802.org/3/ >.
[59] RFC 4944,< http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4944>.
[60] RFC 6282,< http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6282>.
[61] TCP header compression for 6LoWPAN,< http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-aayadi-6lowpan-tcphc-01>.
[62] ICMPv6/ND Compression for 6LoWPAN Networks,< http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-oflynn-6lowpan-icmphc-00>.
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