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研究生:黃騰毅
研究生(外文):Teng-Yi Huang
論文名稱:金屬氫化物儲氫容器之疊層模組設計製作與實驗分析
論文名稱(外文):Modular stack design and experimental analysis of a metal-hydride storage vessel
指導教授:鍾志昂
指導教授(外文):Chih-Ang Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:能源工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:氫氣金屬氫化物儲氫容器疊層模組熱傳增強設計
外文關鍵詞:hydrogenmetal-hydridestorage vesselmodular stackheat transfer enhanced unit
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本文為金屬氫化物儲氫容器之疊層模組設計製作與實驗分析,儲氫容器內部設計包含熱傳增強、氫氣通道之疊層模組。儲氫容器之熱傳能力對儲氫合金儲、放氫效率有明顯影響,因此容器設計主軸在於,如何將儲氫合金於儲氫過程迅速地導出該生成熱量;於放氫過程快速由容器外部導入熱量。儲氫容器之熱傳增強結構,可提升儲氫合金粉末熱傳能力;疊層設計可上下分隔合金粉末之裝填空間,減少容器底層之儲氫合金微粉化堆積的機會,避免儲氫合金因緻密堆積對儲、放氫效率的不良影響。疊層模組結構上亦具有多組氫氣通道設計,確保氫氣於容器內部之流動性及擴散能力。
根據原型金屬儲氫容器實驗發現,儲、放氫時容器隨環境溫度越低及越高皆具有較好的熱傳效果,可使儲氫合金維持良好的操作裝態。容器釋氫流率的設定也將影響儲氫合金的穩定放氫時間,本實驗以12、8及4LPM之釋氫流率做放氫性能測試,發現隨釋氫流率設定值越低則可延長該設定之流率,但熱管之熱傳果隨之降低。同時由儲氫合金粉末的溫度與容器壓力數值變化顯示:較高的氫氣釋放流率會導致合金粉末溫降幅度增加,溫度量測點距離容器殼體或是熱管套筒之熱傳途徑較近時,該位置溫度可以較快趨近外界溫度。
本文章實驗儲氫容器設計之熱管端熱傳途徑具有較多的接觸熱組,因此該熱管熱傳效果有限,但隨儲氫合金放氫熱量需求度越高,則裝置熱管之效用越明顯。放氫速率對於容器內合金粉末溫度變化的影響,也可透過調整環境水浴溫度的方式進行最佳操作,藉由提高環境水浴溫度可提升放氫流率穩定性以及氫氣釋放之續航力。
This thesis presents a metal hydride storage vessel (MH vessel) design. The vessel had five sub-vessels which are called modular stacks. A stack consisted of hydrogen gas tunnels as well as heat transfer enhanced units, and was experimentally analyzed. Heat transfer efficiency has significant effect on hydrogen absorption and desorption processes of the MH vessel, therefore the main concepts of the design were to drive out the generated heat quickly in the absorption process and to provide sufficient heat energy in the desorption process. In this research, there were two ways to promote the hydride-dehydride performance of alloy powders. One is the heat transfer enhancing structures that would improve the overall thermal conductivity of the metal hydride powders, the other is the split space of modular stacks that might distribute the powders evenly in the MH vessel. The split space reduced the accumulated stress of the millimetric powders in the bottom of the vessel and also additionally improved the efficiency in the reaction processes. The modular stacks were equipped with the hydrogen gas tunnels to ensure hydrogen being able to flow and diffuse unhinderedly to split space of each stacks during the reaction processes.
The results from experiments showed that the prototype MH vessel had partial contribution to heat transfer efficacy, and made the alloy powders to maintain a better state of operation. The hydrogen discharge rate set for 12 LPM was not sustainable at the end of the desorption process. However, lower discharging rates of 8 LPM and 4 LPM virtually maintained the flow rates till the end of hydrogen desorption. The experiments revealed that the higher the discharging flow rates the more drastic temperature drops of the alloy powders. Temperatures of the metal hydride powders close to the shell of the MH vessel or the heat transfer enhanced units were found to approach the surrounding temperature rapidly. The shell of MH vessel had better heat transfer efficiency than the heat transfer enhanced units due to the thermal contact resistance of the units.
The usage of heat pipes had minor contribution for low discharging rates which could be maintained for a longer time. When the MH vessel was operated in more critical circumstances, e.g. higher hydrogen discharging rate, the heat transfer enhanced units would bring in more contribution to heat transfer. In contrast, the heat transfer enhanced units would not work obviously when the MH vessel was used in favorable circumstances. Hydrogen releasing rates and temperature of environment for the MH vessel both affected the deformation of metal hydride powders. This study showed the stability, durability and the practicability of the MH vessel could be improved using the modular stacks design.
目錄

國立中央大學碩士論文授權書
論文指導教授推薦書
論文口試委員審定書
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 金屬儲氫方法 3
1.2.1 金屬合金儲氫、放氫原理 3
1.2.2 儲氫金屬合金特性 5
1.2.3 PCI曲線(Pressure-Composition-Isotherm curve) 6
1.3 金屬儲氫容器發展與設計 8
1.4 研究目的 14
第二章 金屬儲氫容器設計 19
2.1 金屬儲氫容器設計概念 19
2.1.1 容器疊層 19
2.1.2 熱傳增強 20
2.1.3 模組化 20
2.1.4 氣體通道 21
2.2 熱管元件 21
2.3 儲氫容器設計參數與組裝流程 23
2.3.1 儲氫容器設計參數 23
2.3.2 儲氫容器組裝流程 25
第三章 實驗方法 39
3.1 實驗系統架設 39
3.1.1實驗系統 39
3.1.2管路控制裝置 40
3.1.3實驗數據擷取裝置 40
3.2 實驗程序 41
3.2.1 西韋茨(Sieverts type)量測法 41
3.2.2 實驗環境條件設定 41
3.2.3 合金粉末製備與活化 41
3.2.4 儲氫 44
3.2.5 放氫 44
3.2.6 還原實驗初始狀態 45
3.2.7 實驗準確度與精確度分析 45
第四章 結果與討論 51
4.1 新型儲氫容器性能測試 51
4.1.1 儲氫容器儲氫性能 51
4.1.2 儲氫容器放氫性能 52
4.1.3 水浴溫度對儲氫容器放氫性能的影響 53
4.2 熱傳設計與實驗條件對儲氫容器溫度分佈的影響 54
4.2.1 水浴溫度對於儲氫容器儲氫反應溫度分佈的影響 54
4.2.2 釋放流率對儲氫容器放氫溫度分佈的影響 55
4.3 實驗條件對儲氫容器溫度變化的影響 59
4.3.1 放氫流率對於儲氫容器溫度變化趨勢的影響 59
4.3.2 水浴溫度對於放氫時儲氫容器溫度變化的影響 60
4.4 熱管對儲氫容器放氫性能與溫度變化的影響 61
4.4.1 熱管對於儲氫容器放氫性能的影響 61
4.4.2 熱管對於各放氫流率之儲氫容器溫度變化的影響 62
第五章 結論與未來展望 85
5.1 結論 85
5.2 未來展望 87
參考文獻 88
附錄A 儲氫容器罐體機械設計 94
A.1 儲氫容器壁厚設計 94
A.2 儲氫容器中空殼管壁厚設計 95
A.3 選用儲氫容器密封蓋之螺絲 96
A.4 螺紋鎖緊力之規範與選用 98
A.5 螺紋承載軸方向負荷有效牙數計算 99
A.6 密封蓋有效密封之螺絲間距計算 101
A.7 氫氣流通氣體通道之壓降值計算 103
附錄B 儲氫合金粉末之孔隙率與填充率 104
B.1 合金粉末之孔隙率 104
B.2 儲氫容器之合金粉末填充率 106
附錄C 儲氫容器熱傳特性 107
C.1 儲氫容器熱阻估算 107
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