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研究生:簡潔
研究生(外文):Chieh Chien
論文名稱:600-V 溝渠式絕緣閘雙極性電晶體設計、分析與短路能力探討
指導教授:辛裕明
指導教授(外文):Yue-ming Hsin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:絕緣閘雙極性電晶體短路能力邊緣終端區IGBT反相驅動電路
外文關鍵詞:Insulated Gate Bipolar TransistorShort-circuit capabilityTerminationIGBT Inverter Board
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本論文首先針對封裝完成之額定電壓/電流為600 V/30 A與導通電壓為1.88 V之絕緣閘雙極性電晶體IGBT:Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor進行設計、製作流程模擬與測量結果分析,再針對縮小元件面積改善邊緣終端區(edge termination)之設計進行研究。最佳化邊緣終端區設計寬度為200 μm且崩潰電壓可達到1200 V以上,藉由改變保護環(guard ring)之濃度可將崩潰電壓調整至額定電壓600 V以配合主動區(active area)之設計。
利用Silvaco公司之Athena和Atlas軟體進行元件製程模擬和電性分析後,加上電路架構進一步探討IGBT短路操作能力(short-circuit capability)。論文中提出場終止型(Field-stop) IGBT之N-緩衝層以遞減摻雜劑量方式作背部摻雜,可有效改善元件短路能力且對元件之基本特性影響不大。最後針對IGBT在變頻器電路(inverter)應用,將隔離電路、閘極驅動電路和六顆IGBT設計在變頻器驅動板中來驅動壓縮機馬達,並配合最佳控制策略完成直流變頻冷氣驅動系統。本論文詳細介紹系統中反相驅動板之設計與操作方法,並將封裝後之IGBT放入此板中做測試。

This research demonstrated the design, analysis, simulation, and characterization of a packaged IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) with the rated voltage/current of 600 V/30 A and on-state voltage of 1.88 V. Moreover, the edge termination was designed to minimize the chip size. The minimum size of designed termination is 200 μm and the measured breakdown voltage is up to 1250 V. For 600 V application the active area of the edge termination can be achieved by changing the guard ring implantation dosage.
Silvaco TCAD simulators (Athena and Atlas) are used to design and simulate the IGBT process and electrical characteristics. After that IGBT is coupled with the circuit architecture to investigate the short-circuit capability. This thesis proposed the field-stop IGBT by decreasing N-buffer dosage gradually from backside implantation, which can significantly improve the device short-circuit capability without acutely affecting the dc characteristics. Finally, an IGBT inverter board including the isolation circuit, gate drive circuit and six packaged IGBTs is demonstrate to evaluate the packaged IGBTs The IGBT inverter board is designed to drive the compressor and combine with the optimized control strategy for DC inverter air conditioner drive system.

摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 XI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與背景 1
1.2 論文架構 3
第二章 IGBT技術發展 4
2.1 前言 4
2.2 功率元件之比較 4
2.3 IGBT等效電路 6
2.4 IGBT操作原理與特性 7
2.4.1 導通特性(On-state Characteristics) 8
2.4.2 耐壓特性(Blocking Characteristics) 8
2.4.3 電流飽和模型(Current Saturation Model) 9
2.4.4 動態特性(Dynamic Characteristics) 11
2.4.4.1 開關特性(Switching Characteristics) 11
2.4.4.2 短路能力(Short-circuit Capability) 13
2.5 IGBT表面閘極結構發展 13
2.5.1 平面式(Planar) IGBT 13
2.5.2 溝渠式(Trench) IGBT 14
2.6 IGBT背部集極端結構發展 15
2.6.1 穿透型(Punch-Through, PT) IGBT 15
2.6.2 非穿透型(Non-Punch Through, NPT) IGBT 17
2.6.3 場終止型(Field Stop, FS) IGBT 19
2.7 IGBT相關技術發展 21
2.7.1 增強型注入絕緣閘雙極性電晶體(IEGT) 21
2.7.2 載子儲存溝渠式閘極雙極性電晶體(CSTBT) 22
2.7.3 溝渠式場終止型絕緣閘雙極性電晶體(Trenchstop IGBT) 23
2.7.4 雙閘極之溝渠式絕緣閘雙極性電晶體(DG-TIGBT) 23
2.8 結論 24
第三章 600 V溝渠式IGBT模擬、分析與製作 25
3.1 前言 25
3.2 元件設計目標 25
3.3 IGBT設計與分析 25
3.3.1 穿透型溝渠式IGBT靜態特性模擬 25
3.3.2 穿透型溝渠式IGBT動態特性模擬 29
3.3.3 IGBT電子束幅射前後特性比較 30
3.3.4 IGBT測量結果 31
3.4 邊緣終端區(Edge Termination)設計與分析 32
3.4.1 邊緣終端區之設計 32
3.4.2 邊緣終端區之製作流程 36
3.4.3 邊緣終端區之參數設計與測量特性 37
3.4.4 最佳化之最小面積邊緣終端區設計 39
3.5 結論 41
第四章 IGBT短路能力探討 42
4.1 前言 42
4.2 電路架構與問題成因 42
4.3 理論推導 44
4.4 短路能力模擬探討 46
4.4.1 以模擬角度探討物理機制 51
4.4.2 改變元件外部測試條件 52
4.4.2.1 改變短路能力測試時間 52
4.4.2.2 改變短路測試電路中接線電感值 53
4.4.3 改變元件注入效率 55
4.4.3.1 改變P+集極端摻雜濃度 55
4.4.3.2 改變N-緩衝層摻雜濃度 59
4.4.3.3 改變N-緩衝層摻雜能量 63
4.5 結論 70
第五章 600 V/30 A IGBT反相驅動電路應用 71
5.1 前言 71
5.2 IGBT反相驅動電路板設計 71
5.3 系統架構與操作原理 72
5.4 操作結果 76
5.5 結論 79
第六章 總結 80
參考文獻 81

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