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研究生:鄭麗麗
論文名稱:工作要求、職業緊張與離職意圖之關係:以磁吸醫院氛圍為干擾變項
指導教授:蔡啟通蔡啟通引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:工作要求職業緊張離職意圖磁吸醫院
外文關鍵詞:job demandoccupational strainturnover intentionMagnet hospitals
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護理人力嚴重不足的問題促使美國在1983年提出磁吸醫院的概念,其指的是能建構出優質的護理工作環境,使得醫院內會具有一種像磁鐵般的吸引力。近年來台灣也開始認同與重視磁吸醫院的概念,正視與解決目前護理人力短缺問題。有關磁吸醫院的研究結果指出醫院有磁吸醫院氛圍,會使得護理人員有低的離職意圖,但是缺乏證明其因果之關係,另外也鮮少套用在管理理論上進行探討。職業緊張的研究常應用在健康照護上,主要是探討職業緊張造成在健康上的後果,鮮少探討在個人行為的影響,故本研究以離職意圖為結果變項進行探討。另外,基於工作要求-控制模式缺乏探討在工作資源上的角色,本研究將以磁吸醫院氛圍為工作資源的角色進行探討,歸納本研究目的如下:(1)探討工作要求分別與職業緊張以及離職意圖之關係(2)探討職業緊張與離職意圖之關係(3)探討磁吸醫院氛圍對離職意圖之關係(4)探討磁吸醫院氛圍是否對工作要求與離職意圖之關係產生干擾效果。
本研究以符合區域醫院資格之醫院工作的護理人員為母體,採立意取樣方式並以兩階段方式發放問卷,共發放350,最終有效問卷為248份。
研究結果發現:(1)當護理人員工作要求越多時,其離職意圖會越高(2)當護理人員工作要求越多時,其職業緊張會越高(3)當護理人員職業緊張越高時,其離職意圖也會越高(4)當護理人員知覺磁吸醫院氛圍高時,其離職意圖會越低(5)磁吸醫院氛圍對工作要求與離職意圖之關係具有干擾效果,但研究結果是高磁吸醫院氛圍會增加「工作要求與離職意圖的正向關係」,相對低磁吸醫院氛圍會減弱了「工作要求與離職意圖的正向關係」,與本研究假設相反。
本研究提出管理意涵如下:(1)醫院應重視護理人員之工作要求,減少其離職意圖(2)醫院應重視護理人員之職業緊張,減少其離職意圖(3)應先給予護理人員對磁吸醫院之正確概念,再慢慢推動實行。
Magnet hospitals mean to construct a high-quality nursing work environment so that hospitals can attract nurses. Taiwan began to identify with emphasis on magnet hospitals concept, facing and solve the problems of the current lack of nursing manpower. Many research results confirmed magnet hospitals climate make nurses low turnover intention, however, it is rarely have evidence of a causal relationship and rarely applied in management theory to explore . Occupational strain is mainly used in the health care research to explore caused health consequences, rarely explore the impact on individual behavior, so we use turnover intention to explore the impact on individual behavior. Job demand - control model lack of explore the role in the job resources, so we will use magnet hospitals climate to explore the role of job resources.
In addition, the purpose of this study are first, to test the relationship between job demand and turnover intention, job demand and occupational strain, occupational strain and turnover intention, forces of magnetism and turnover intention; second, to explore the moderating role of magnet hospitals climate between job demand and turnover intention.
In this study, the target samples were the nurses that work in regional hospital qualification. We take two phases to send out the questionnaires and there were 248 valid questionnaires.
Result showed that job demand was positive related to occupational strain and turnover intention. Occupational strain was positive related to turnover intention. Magnet hospitals climate was negative related to turnover intention. Further, magnet hospitals climate moderate the relationship between job demand and turnover intention, but the results are high magnet hospital climate will increase the positive relationship between job demand and turnover intention; low magnet hospital climate will weaken the positive relationship between job demand and turnover intention, this study assumes the opposite.
The management meaning that is: hospital should pay attention to the nurses job demand and occupational strain to reduce its turnover intention. Hospitals should give nurses the correct concept of magnet hospitals, and then slowly to promote the practice.
目 錄
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 III
表目次 VI
圖目次 VII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 研究流程 4
第四節 名詞釋義 5
第二章 文獻探討 7
第一節 工作要求與離職意圖之關係 7
第二節 工作要求與職業緊張之關係 8
第三節 職業緊張與離職意圖之關係 9
第四節 磁吸醫院之內涵 10
第五節 磁吸醫院氛圍與離職意圖之關係 15
第六節 磁吸醫院氛圍干擾工作要求與離職意圖之關係 16
第三章 研究方法 18
第一節 研究結構與假設 18
第二節 研究對象 19
第三節 研究工具 19
第四節 調查實施 22
第五節 資料分析 23
第四章 研究結果與討論 25
第一節 樣本描述 25
第二節 問卷之信度與效度 26
第三節 研究變項之皮爾森積差相關 33
第四節 各研究變項之關聯性 36
第五節 磁吸醫院氛圍干擾工作要求與離職意圖之關係 40
第五章 結論與建議 43
第一節 研究主要發現 43
第二節 研究討論 45
第三節 研究建議 47
第四節 研究限制 49
參考文獻 51
附錄 62
附錄一 正式問卷 63

表目次
表3-1: 問卷發放與有效回收統計 23
表4-1: 受測者基本背景資料 25
表4-2: 工作要求量表之因素分析 28
表4-3: 職業緊張量表之因素分析 29
表4-4: 離職意圖量表之因素分析 30
表4-5: 磁吸醫院氛圍量表之因素分析 31
表4-6: 驗證性因素分析結果 32
表4-7: 樣本之各量表信度分析結果 33
表4-8: 研究變項之平均數、標準差及變項之關係係 35
表4-9: 工作要求對職業緊張之迴歸分析 38
表4-10:工作要求對離職意圖、職業緊張對離職意圖、磁吸醫院氛圍對離職意圖之迴歸分析 39
表4-11:磁吸醫院氛圍對「工作要求與離職意圖」干擾效果之迴歸分析 41

圖目次
圖3-1: 研究架構 18
圖4-1: 磁吸醫院氛圍、工作要求對離職意圖交互作用 42
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