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研究生:林俊賢
研究生(外文):Chun-Hsien Lin
論文名稱:渥氏棘蟻(Polyrhachis wolfi)群落之覓食與分工行為研究(膜翅目:蟻科)
論文名稱(外文):Foraging Behavior and Division of Labor in the Colony of Polyrhachis wolfi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
指導教授:林宗岐 博士
指導教授(外文):Dr.Chung-Chi Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:生物學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:覓食行為社會分工渥氏棘蟻群落大小
外文關鍵詞:foraging behaviordivision of laborPolyrhachis wolficolony size
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社會分工是社會昆蟲存活與演化成功的關鍵因素之一,覓食行為上的勞務分工使得社會昆蟲能更有效率地搜尋、取回、分享食物;群落大小亦會造成社會昆蟲不同的分工策略。渥氏棘蟻 (Polyhachis wolfi) 為棘蟻屬中之台灣特有種,因其體型大而易於標記,適合用來作為群落覓食分工觀察。本研究以不同種類食物提供群落覓食,探討蟻群職蟻覓食偏好與群落大小及分工關係,將大小不同群落(N1=140,N2=24) 職蟻全部標記後,給予布丁及擬步行蟲幼蟲供其選擇,錄影分析大小群落在不同覓食區之覓食職蟻、覓食時間與次數。研究發現,大群落及小群落對布丁食物皆明顯偏好 ( p < 0.01),群落大小對食物選擇策略也有差異 ( p < 0.01)。分工情形上,大小群落也有不同,大群落具明顯社會分工,小群落則因職蟻數不足,僅足以維持群落基本需求而不見有明顯之勞務分工。
Division of labor is one of the key determinants for the survival of social insects and successful evolution. Social insects can effectively search, retrieve, and share food by means of division of labor in foraging bahavior. Also, the size of colonies can also leads to different dispatching strategies. Polyrhachis wolfi is an endemic species among its genus in Taiwan. Because it has a large body that it’s easily labeled, it’s suitable to be used in observing colony foraging among this species. This study aims to provide different kinds of food for them and discusses the relation between preferences of foraging as far as colonies of workers are concerned, the size of colonies, and the division of labor. Different colonies of workers (N1=140, N2=24) were all labeled before given pudding and larvae to choose . Video analysis was carried out to explore different colonies’ foraging for workers, foraging time and times in different foraging areas. The study found that both large and small colonies have preference for pudding( p < 0.01). The size of colonies had effect on the strategies of food option. The division of labor between the size of colonies were different( p < 0.01). Large colony was characteristic of constant division of labor whereas small colonies just retain the basic needed without division of labor being observed because of the insufficient number of workers.
目錄
誌謝 Ⅰ
摘要 Ⅱ
Abstract Ⅲ
目錄 Ⅳ
圖目錄 Ⅵ
表目錄 Ⅶ
壹、前言 1
貳、往昔研究 4
一、最佳覓食理論 4
二、螞蟻的覓食理論 5
三、群落社會分工 7
(一) 社會分工的意義 7
(二) 社會分工的模式 10
四、群落大小、覓食行為與分工 21
參、材料與方法 23
一、研究材料 23
二、材料來源及群落飼養 24
三、底層動物行為生態觀察教具模組 25
四、研究方法 27
五、統計分析 30

肆、結果 32
一、渥氏棘蟻群落大小對覓食偏好試驗 32
(一) 覓食時間與覓食偏好 32
(二) 覓食次數與覓食偏好 34
二、渥氏棘蟻覓食個體分工行為試驗 35
(一) 群落個體覓食分工次數 35
(二) 個體覓食停留時間與最佳化覓食 40
三、個體覓食行為與群落覓食分工 42
(一) 個體覓食情形 42
(二) 群落分工之檢定 45
伍、討論 48
一、群落大小對覓食偏好試驗 48
二、渥氏棘蟻覓食個體分工行為試驗 51
陸、結論 52
柒、參考文獻 54
捌、附錄 59

圖目錄
圖一、渥氏棘蟻 ( Polyrhachis wolfi ) 人工蟻巢構造圖 25
圖二、底層動物行為生態觀察教具模組簡圖 25
圖三、底層動物行為生態觀察教具模組 26
圖四、渥氏棘蟻 ( Polyrhachis wolfi ) 標記固定圖 28
圖五、渥氏棘蟻 ( Polyrhachis wolfi ) 標記完成圖 28
圖六、渥氏棘蟻 ( Polyrhachis wolfi ) 覓食行為實驗裝置圖 29
圖七、A巢渥氏棘蟻 ( Polyrhachis wolfi) 族群個體單次覓食停留時間長短次數比例圖 40
圖八、B巢渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) 族群個體單次覓食停留
時間長短次數比例圖 41

表目錄
表一、渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi ) 群落組成 24
表二、渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) 對不同食物種類覓食狀態 32
表三、渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) 對不同食物種類覓食狀態已校正之數據 33
表四、渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) 不同群落大小與食物種類對總職蟻平均覓食時間(秒)的影響 33
表五、渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) 不同群落大小與食物種類對總職蟻平均覓食時間影響二因子變異數分析表 34
表六、渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) 不同群落之覓食次數 35
表七、A巢渥氏棘蟻覓食分工次數統計表(EXPⅠ)36
表八、A巢渥氏棘蟻覓食分工次數統計表(EXPⅡ)37
表九、A巢渥氏棘蟻覓食分工次數統計表(EXPⅢ)38
表十、B巢渥氏棘蟻覓食分工次數統計表(EXPⅠ)39
表十一、B巢渥氏棘蟻覓食分工次數統計表(EXPⅡ)39
表十二、B巢渥氏棘蟻覓食分工次數統計表(EXPⅢ)39
表十三、渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) 不同個體分工統計總表 44
表十四、A巢渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) 群落分工統計表 45
表十五、渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) A巢群落分工狀態表 46
表十六、B巢渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) 群落分工統計表 47
表十七、渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) B巢群落分工狀態表 47
表十八、渥氏棘蟻 (Polyrhachis wolfi) 不同群落大小與食物種類對外勤職蟻平均覓食時間影響二因子變異數分析表 50
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