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研究生:周若雯
研究生(外文):Ruo-Wun Jhou
論文名稱:台灣學生英語字彙知識深度之探討
論文名稱(外文):An Investigation of the Depth of English Vocabulary Knowledge of Taiwanese Vocational High School Students
指導教授:黃春騰黃春騰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Teng Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:英文字彙深度
外文關鍵詞:the depth of English vocabulary knowledge
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英文字彙知識是個複雜的概念。根據Tannenbaum、Torgesen和 Wagner三位學者於2006年所提出,英文字彙知識涵蓋兩個層面,一是廣度,另一是深度。廣度層面已經被廣泛地調查了,然而深度層面相對上缺乏探討。就目前僅找到的幾篇與深度相關的研究而言,研究者多著眼於字義與搭配字方面的知識。於是,本篇研究所關切的一個要點即是,字彙知識不僅僅由此兩方面組成,仍包含其他許多方面。因為紀錄深度層面之內涵的實證研究確實稀少,本研究的目的於是試著要探討台灣高職學生的英語字彙深度,以及其內涵各知識的相互關係。
本研究包含一份測驗,由六大題項組成,分別代表英語字彙知識的六大類內涵。這份測驗為研究者本身參考一位語言學暨英語教學專家(本人之指導教授黃春騰博士)的建議設計而成。某國立高職二年級4個班級共148位學生參與了本測驗。此外,根據此英語字彙知識測驗的個別成績,受測者進一步被區分為高分組、中分組與低分組。此安排是為了確認個人的整體英語字彙知識程度是否造成不同的字彙知識了解程度。測驗結果的量化分析採用敘述統計、變異量分析與皮爾森相關分析。
本研究結果顯示,不論個別學生的英語字彙能力,全體受測者皆最了解字義知識(knowledge of word use),但不太具備合宜地使用單字的知識(knowledge of appropriate word use)。而這種表現模式並不因個別受測者的整體英文字彙能力而改變。但是,他們實際上所認識的字義多為中文翻譯(discrete word meanings);相較之下,他們對情境中的字義(contextual word meanings)並無相等的了解。另一個重要發現是,這些受測者對字根字首字尾的知識(word parts knowledge)不太熟悉,因此他們或許無法有效地運用此知識來學習字義。本研究結果也顯示,英語字彙知識內涵的六大類知識彼此間的關係僅達中度或低度。此外,儘管受測者對基本字意最為了解,但基本字義知識與其他類知識並無緊密相關,反而是情境字義與搭配字知識與他類知識較有相關性。
由以上研究發現可知,本研究對於了解台灣高職生確實的英語字彙知識、他們的弱點所在,以及英語字彙知識的實際內涵等方面有其重要性。所以,本研究結果將幫助英語老師更了解學生可能的學習需要,並以此為基準來適度地調整教學技巧,以期達到更好的教學成效。

English vocabulary knowledge is a complicated construct, according to Tannenbaum, Torgesen &; Wagner (2006), which contains two dimensions, breadth and depth. While the breadth dimension has been extensively investigated, the depth dimension is relatively unexplored. Of the few existing studies on the depth dimension, research focuses were mostly set on the meaning and collocation aspects only. A major concern is that the depth dimension does not merely consist of the two aspects, but several other components as well. Because research which has empirically documented the nature of the depth dimension is scant, the aim of this study attempts to explore Taiwanese vocational high school students’ depth of English vocabulary knowledge and how different components of the knowledge are related.

The study involved a test, comprised of six sections representing six major categories of English vocabulary knowledge. The test was designed by the researcher herself, taking advices given by an expert in both linguistics and EFL education. Four intact classes of 148 second graders from a vocational high school in central Taiwan participated in the study. They took the test during a regular period commonly used for class meeting after informed of the purpose of the test. Furthermore, the subjects were divided into three proficiency groups according to their scores of the English Vocabulary Knowledge test, namely, high-, intermediate-, and low-score groups. The arrangement was to ascertain whether overall proficiency of English vocabulary would bring forth different understanding of English vocabulary knowledge. The quantitative analysis of the test results was conducted through descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and Pearson correlation.

An important finding of this study was that regardless of their proficiency of English vocabulary, among the six categories of the sub-components of word knowledge defined in this study, the subjects understood word meanings best, but they did not understand how to use English words appropriately as much. Moreover, what they virtually understood in terms of meaning was mostly discrete word meanings, namely, Chinese equivalents to English words. By contrast, they were not equally familiar with contextual word meanings. Great importance is also attached to the finding that the students’ familiarity with word parts knowledge was significantly lower than their familiarity with knowledge of discrete word meanings. Thus, it could be inferred that they might be unable to efficiently apply morphemic strategy to English word-meaning learning.
In addition, the six major categories of English vocabulary knowledge were correlated only to either moderate or low extent. What’s more, though knowledge of discrete word meanings was what the students understood most, it did not have closer relationship with all the other categories. Rather, it was knowledge of collocation and knowledge of contextual word meanings that more closely connected to other categories.

To conclude, this study may be of importance in understanding what Taiwanese vocational high school students actually know of English vocabulary, where their weaknesses lie, and what the nature of English vocabulary knowledge (EVK) actually is. Therefore, it would help English instructors better realize their students’ possible learning needs and how to adjust their teaching technique based on the inner quality of English vocabulary knowledge.

CONTENT
CHINESE ABSTRACT i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
CONTENT vi
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Motivation of the Study 4
Purposes of the Study 7
Research Questions 8
Significance of the Study 8
Definition of Terms 9
Organization of the Thesis 12
CHPAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 14
Word Knowledge Involved in Vocabulary Learning 14
Breadth of vocabulary knowledge 15
Depth of English vocabulary 16
Knowledge of Vocabulary Meanings 19
Word meanings in isolation 19
Word meanings in context 20
Knowledge of Vocabulary Use 22
An essential aspect of vocabulary usage, Argument Structure 22
Collocation, a common difficulty in vocabulary learning 24
Pragmatic learning of vocabulary use 25
Learning Approaches Pertinent to Different Vocabulary Learning Needs 30
Context-alone Approach. 30
Strategy-Using Approach 31
Explicit vocabulary learning 37
Learning of Verb Constructions 39
Summary of Literature Review 42

CHPAPTER THREE METHODLOGY 44
Subjects 44
Instrument 45
The development of the English Vocabulary Knowledge test 45
Content design of the English Vocabulary Knowledge Test .46
Data Collection Procedure 47
Data Analysis 48
The Pilot Study 48
CHPAPTER FOUR RESULTS 58
Differences in the Subjects’ Performance on the EVK Test 58
Differences in the Three Proficiency Groups’ Performances on the EVK Test 60
Interrelationships among the Six Categories of English Vocabulary Knowledge 66
CHPAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 69
The Students’ Understanding of Different EVK Components 69
Different English Vocabulary Proficiency Levels, Similar Acquisition Patterns 73
Correlations among the six Categories of English Vocabulary Knowledge 74
Conclusion of the Study 75
Pedagogical Implications 76
Limitations of the Study 77
Suggestions for Future Research 78
REFERENCES 80
APPENDIX 91
Appendix A Content Design of the English Vocabulary Knowledge Test 91
Appendix B English Vocabulary Knowledge Test 93
Appendix C 英語字彙知識測驗 98

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Classification of vocabulary knowledge 17
Table 3.1 Descriptive Statistical Results of the English Vocabulary Knowledge Test 49
Table 3.2 Correlation between Discrete Word Meanings and Contextual Word Meanings 56
Table 4.1 Results of the Subjects’ Performances on the Whole EVK Test 59
Table 4.2 Results of High-Score Group’s Performance on the EVK Test 61
Table 4.3 Results of Intermediate-Score Group’s Performance on the EVK Test 62
Table 4.4 Results of Low-Score Group’s Performance on the EVK Test 63
Table 4.5 Summary ANOVA Table for the three Groups’ Performances on the Six EVK Categorie 64
Table 4.6 Summary ANOVA Table for the three Groups’ Performances of the three EVK Components 65
Table 4.7 Results of Correlation Analysis for the Six EVK Categories 67

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Elements involved in a Word Map. 35
Figure 3.1 The distribution of Word Parts scores of the subjects. 50
Figure 3.2 The distribution of scores on the test of Discrete Word Meanings. 51
Figure 3.3 The distribution of scores on the test of Contextual Word Meanings. 52
Figure 3.4 The distribution of scores for Collocation test. 53
Figure 3.5 The distribution of scores for Argument Structure test. 54
Figure 3.6 The distribution of scores for Word Use test. 55





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