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研究生:吳俊逸
研究生(外文):Chung-yi Wu
論文名稱:大學生英語態度、英語使用及英語溝通意願之研究
論文名稱(外文):College Students’ Attitudes, English Use, and Willingness to Communicate in English
指導教授:張善貿張善貿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shan-mao Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:英語態度英語使用英語溝通意願
外文關鍵詞:AttitudesEnglish UseWillingness to Communicate in English
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一直以來,第二語言學習者的溝通意願與心理學領域有廣泛的研究與連結;然而,在以英語為外語學習的國家仍需要更廣泛的研究。本研究旨在探究大學生英語態度、英語使用,及英語溝通意願之間的差異及相關。再者,本研究進一步分析大學生英語態度及英語使用對及英語溝通意願的因果關係。
本研究的參與對象為台灣中部大學540位不同科系的大學生,並針對大學生英語態度、英語使用,及英語溝通意願自行研發出一份量化研究之態度量表問卷。本研究使用統計軟體SPSS 19.0 for Windows 進行整理與分析。研究者會以描述統計(平均值及標準差)來探究研究變數的差異;以皮爾森相關係數解釋研究變數之間的相關性;最後,以逐步多元迴歸方式找出大學生英語態度及英語使用對英語溝通意願的重要性。
研究結果顯示大學生的態度良好,英語的使用頻率偏低,而英語溝通意願中偏高(在聽、讀性英語溝通意願尤佳)。對於英語態度,學生持有國際觀的態度比接受英美文化的態度更與英語溝通意願有相關。再者,學生持有國際觀與英語的使用有高度相關。另外,學生在教室使用英語的多寡與課堂學習的態度有關。總而言之,雖然受到國際化的影響,大學生的國際觀變得越來越明顯,但是在英語使用機會甚少的國家中,教室內的態度以及英語的使用內不能被忽略,因為它們終將能夠影響學生的英語溝通意願。最後,本研究期望增添英語溝通意願之研究領域上的學術貢獻,並在教學領域上給予大學英文老師教學建議與方針,以期加強學生的英語態度及英語使用。
A plethora of research on L2 learners’ willingness to communicate (WTC) has been conducted; yet few studies have been carried out in EFL contexts. The present study first aims to explore Taiwanese university students’ Attitude and English Use in relation to WTC in English learning. Second, the study assesses how these two factors are related to WTC in English.
Five hundred and forty students at a university in central Taiwan participated in the study. A self-evaluative questionnaire was employed to assess various attitudes towards learning and social contexts, English use, and WTC in English. The data were quantitatively analyzed with the statistical package SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the level of variance on all the test items in terms of means (M), and standard deviations (SD). Pearson correlation was used to analyze the relationships between scores of the different items. Stepwise multiple regression was used to explore the predictability of WTC in English by investigating students’ Attitudes and English Use.
The results showed that university students’ Attitudes were moderately positive whereas their frequency on English Use was less than sufficient, with their WTC in English being acceptable in receptive communication (reading and speaking). Among their Attitudes, International Posture received higher scores than attitudes towards British and American cultures. Moreover, International Posture was found to be closely related to English Use. In addition, a relationship was discovered between attitudes towards classroom learning situations and the amount of use in class. Lastly, the importance of English Use for class requirement concurred with findings of previous studies that task motive is crucial in the EFL learning contexts. In sum, while the college students’ attitudes towards international community is vital under the state of globalization, the importance of the EFL classroom atmosphere cannot be overlooked, as it is one of the factors that affects English Use in the class, which in turn affects WTC in English. The present study adds more insight to the field of WTC research and provides university English teachers a guide to foster learners’ attitudes and use of English.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT (ENGLISH) i
ABSTRACT (CHINESE) iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statements of the Problem 5
Purpose of the Study 10
Research Questions 11
Significance of the Study 11
Definitions of Terms 12

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 16
The Concept of WTC 16
Theoretical Foundation and Development of WTC 17
The Importance of WTC in Second Language Acquisition 18
Empirical Research on WTC in L2 Communication 21
Research on WTC and Affective Variables 21
Research on L2 WTC and Motivational Orientations 22
Research on L2 WTC and Communication Variables 24
Attitude toward L2 Learning 27
Conceptualization of Attitude toward L2 learning 27
Research on Attitude and L2 Learning 29
Learners’ attitude in ESL context 29
Learners’ attitude in FLL context 30
The Empirical Studies of Attitude and WTC in EFL Countries 34
The Empirical Studies of Attitude and WTC in Taiwan 39

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 46
Participants 46
Instruments 48
Background Information 48
Attitudes 48
English Use 51
Willingness to Communicate (WTC) in English 53
Procedures for Designing Questionnaire Items 56
Data Collection Procedures 57
Data Analysis 58
The Pilot Study 58

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 61
Descriptive Statistical Analysis 61
Attitudes 61
English Use 70
WTC in English 74
Pearson Correlation Analysis 78
Intercorrelations among Attitudes, English Use, and WTC in English 78
Correlations between Attitudes and English Use 82
Correlations between Attitudes and WTC in English 84
Correlations between English Use and WTC in English 86
Multiple Regression Analysis 88

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 90
Summary of the Study 90
Pedagogical Implication 92
Limitations of the Study 94
Suggestions for Future Studies 96

REFERENCES 99

APPENDICES 108
Appendix A The Student Questionnaire (Chinese Version) 108
Appendix B The Student Questionnaire (English Version) 114



LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 The Percentages of Each College Students with Sophomore, Junior, and Senior Year 47
Table 3.2 Reliability Analysis for Students’ Attitudes 49
Table 3.3 Reliability Analysis for Students’ English Use 52
Table 3.4 Reliability Analysis for Students’ WTC in English 55
Table 4.1 Descriptive Statistics Concerning the Results of Attitudes 63
Table 4.2 Frequencies of Responses (in %), Means (M), and Standard Deviations (SD) of Interest in Foreign Languages 64
Table 4.3 Frequencies of Responses (in %), Means (M), and Standard Deviations (SD) of International Posture 66
Table 4.4 Frequencies of Responses (in %), Means (M), and Standard Deviations (SD) of Attitudes towards British and American Cultures 68
Table 4.5 Frequencies of Responses (in %), Means (M), and Standard Deviations (SD) of Attitudes towards the English Learning Situation 69
Table 4.6 Descriptive Statistics Concerning the Results of English Use 71
Table 4.7 Frequencies of Responses (in %), Means (M), and Standard Deviations (SD) of the English Use 73
Table 4.8 Descriptive Statistics Concerning the Results of WTC in English 75
Table 4.9 Frequencies of Responses (in %), Means (M), and Standard Deviations (SD) of WTC in English 76
Table 4.10 Intercorrelations among Attitude towards English 79
Table 4.11 Intercorrelations among English Use 80
Table 4.12 Intercorrelations among Types of WTC in English 81
Table 4.13 Correlations between Attitudes and English Use 84
Table 4.14 Correlations between Attitudes and WTC in English 85
Table 4.15 Correlations between English Use and WTC in English 87
Table 4.16 Results of the Regression Analysis on WTC in English with the Attitudes and English Use as Predictors 89



LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 MacIntyre’s (1994) casual model for predicting WTC by using personality-based variables 19
Figure 2.2 The model of L2 communication applied to English and French bilingual immersion context in Canada (as cited from MacIntyre &; Charos, 1996, p. 18) 20
Figure 2.3 MacIntyre et al.’s (1998) pyramidal model of WTC in L2 21
Figure 2.4 The socio-educational model of integrative motivation (Gardner, 1985) 30
Figure 2.5 Belmechri and Hummel’s (1998) motivational orientation model based on the Gardner’s and Clément’s models 33
Figure 2.6 The model of L2 communication applied to EFL context in Japan (as cited from Yashima, 2002, p. 61) 35
Figure 2.7 The model of L2 communication applied to Japanese ESL classroom context (as cited from Hashimoto, 2002, p. 55) 37

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