(3.227.235.183) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/17 11:12
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:鄭詠芝
研究生(外文):Yung-chih Cheng
論文名稱:對等原則在翻譯研究上的應用與探討: 以《夏綠蒂的網》為例
論文名稱(外文):Equivalence-based Approach to the Studies of Translation: A Cases Study of Charlotte’s Web
指導教授:蔣筱珍博士
指導教授(外文):Dr. Hsiao-chen Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:翻譯研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:翻譯學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:對等原則相對對等夏綠蒂的網兒童文學翻譯
外文關鍵詞:equivalence principlerelative equivalenceCharlotte’s Webtranslation of children’s literature
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:777
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:100
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘要
在翻譯研究中,對等原則向來佔有一席之地,鑒於多年來直譯與意譯的爭議未有定論,對等原則的引進,使譯界人士終有明確標準可評斷翻譯品質。而談到對等原則,各派看法略有不同,本研究先簡略介紹相關理論,包括雅克布森(Jakobson)、奈達(Nida)、紐馬克(Newmark)、柯勒(Koller)等人在對等原則上的觀點,確認翻譯對等基本上可行,再以貝克(Baker)在In Other Words 中探討翻譯的模式為基準,由下至上探討英漢翻譯中的對等問題。貝克言明,由於不同語言間存在語言本身與文化的限制,全然的對等不可能達成,故對等永遠是相對程度的對等。本研究由下至上探討字面層級、字以上層級,以及文法層級的對等,先探討各層級缺乏直接對等的因素,再提出可採用的策略,做為達到相對對等的方法。
為了解相對對等模式在翻譯上的應用情形,本研究選擇兒童文學經典《夏綠蒂的網》作為研究材料,理由有二,其一是懷特(E. B. White)的語言簡潔有力,全書卻處處可見語言之巧妙,其二是由於語言文化差異,相關翻譯問題值得關注。本研究挑選兩譯本,相互比較其於各層級的策略運用;分別是1998年劉懿慧於敦煌書局所出譯本,及2003年黃可凡的聯經譯本,由於第二位譯者翻譯時僅十初歲,藉由分析,可了解成人與兒童對翻譯策略的運用有何差異。同時,文獻中也提出,在對等原則框架下,翻譯兒童文學時,對改編(adaptation)技巧的使用更須注意。
兩譯本相較,於字面層級上,成人譯者更偏好使用改編技巧,以求增進中文讀者對原作的認同,這符合文獻中的分析,但必須注意盡量不要干擾譯本讀者對原作的了解,而在其他技巧方面,差異較不明顯,需注意的是,因成人譯者對世界的認識可能更為全面,在具體化策略運用上,成人譯者也較為出色。而於字面以上層級,兒童譯者更偏好使用成語,不過,卻能適時直譯以保留原作意象,而就成人譯者而言,這卻是較少使用的策略。最後,於文法層級,成人譯者表現較佳,對原文文法掌握有誤的情形更少出現,也能利用調節技巧,將譯文轉換為自然道地的語言,這牽涉到對雙語文法深層的認識,兒童譯者雖時有佳譯,仍可發現對此掌握尚有不足之處。雖然如此,整體而言,兒童譯者的表現堪稱可圈可點,語言也相當流暢。研究採取由下而上方式探討英漢翻譯對等,仍僅是初步研究,未能探討更上層的篇章與語用層級,期盼未來研究者可朝此領域繼續深究。

關鍵詞: 對等原則、相對對等、夏綠蒂的網、兒童文學翻譯


ABSTRACT
The equivalence theory has been a vital principle in translation studies ever since its introduction. As the debate over literal and free translation did not end with a certain conclusion, the equivalence principle provides a new perspective for people taking part in translation actions with a clear standard for judging the quality of translation. However, various theorists have been dedicated to the discussion, and each looks from different perspective. Briefly examining the major theories by Jakobson, Nida, Newmark and Koller, we conclude that equivalence principle is a reachable goal in translation. Then, we proceed by adopting Baker’s bottom-up approach in examining translation, and propose to use the first three levels in attaining “relative equivalence”, which are equivalence at word level, above word level, and at the grammatical level. As Baker (1992) rightly suggests, “though equivalence can usually be attained to some extent, it is influenced by a variety of linguistic and cultural factors and is therefore always relative” (p.6).
To explore how the proposed model is utilized in translation practice, we choose E. B. White’s Charlotte’s Web as the research material, which is a classic of children’s literature. There are two reasons for this decision; for one thing, White’s language is comparatively simple, and yet full of play on words; for the other, the story itself presents some cultural issues, which deserves some careful examination. Two Chinese versions are chosen for the current study, which are the 1998’s bilingual version (TT1) translated by Liu Yi-hui and published by Cave Books, and the 2003 version (TT2) translated by Huang Ke-fan and published by Linking Publishing Company. As the second version was translated by Huang when she was an 11-year-old girl, this brings intriguing issues worthy of discovery, and significant difference for the selection of techniques between the adult and child translator are examined. Since Charlotte’s Web belongs to the genre of children’s literature, it is suggested that careful employment of adaptation technique is required in translating this genre under the scope of equivalence principle.
The findings of the study are three-fold. First, relating to equivalence at word level, the adult translator, as assumed, shows a clear preference for adopting adaptation technique, aiming to enhance readers’ identification with the original. It is nevertheless important that such uses should not interfere with the TT readers’ opportunity to explore the new. Also, the adult translator outshines the other by adopting the particularization technique. At the second level, we find that the child translator employs more of the idioms, but in some situation, literal translation is employed to preserve the imagery of the original while the adult translator adopts less often the literal translation technique. Finally, it is found that the adult translator does a better job by reaching relative equivalence at the grammatical level. Having better understanding of the grammatical system of the two languages, the adult translator is able to aptly employ modulation technique and the like to produce natural language, and fewer grammatical mistakes can be spotted. When the grammatical level is concerned, TT2 author does show some room for improvement to fully harness the related techniques. However, taken as a whole, there has been plenty to admire in TT2, and the language itself is rather fluent. Being a preliminary study that takes a bottom-up approach to tackle translation equivalence, the higher levels regarding textual and pragmatic equivalence are not covered, and these two levels should be explored in the future.


Keywords: equivalence principle, relative equivalence, Charlotte’s Web, translation of children’s literature

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
ABSTRACT (CHINESE) i
ABSTRACT (ENGLISH) iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix

Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Rationale 4
1.3 Research Design 5
1.4 Purpose of the Study 9
1.5 Significance 9
1.6 Organization of the Study 10
1.7 Definition of Terms 11
Chapter Two Literature Review 13
2.1 The Purpose of Equivalence Principles in Translation 13
2.2 From Non-equivalence to Baker’s Relative Equivalence: at Word level 23
2.2.1 A Lack of Direct Equivalence in Form 24
2.2.2 A Lack of Direct Equivalence in Meaning 25
2.2.3 A Lack of Direct Equivalence in Culture 30
2.2.4 Available Equivalence-based Translation Techniques at Word Level 32

2.3 From Non-equivalence to Baker’s Relative Equivalence: above Word Level 39
2.3.1 Collocations 39
2.3.2 Idioms and Fixed Expressions 41
2.3.3 Available Equivalence-based Translation Techniques above Word Level 43
2.4 From Non-equivalence to Baker’s Relative Equivalence: at the Grammatical Level 46
2.4.1 Voice 47
2.4.2 Number 49
2.4.3 Parts of Speech 50
2.5 The Challenge of Translating Children’s Literature under the Scope of Equivalence Principle 54

Chapter Three Equivalence at Word Level and above Word Level 57
3.1 Introducing the Novel Charlotte’s Web 57
3.1.1 Plot Synopsis 57
3.1.2 Main Characters 58
3.2 Equivalence at Word level 60
3.3 Equivalence above Word Level 87

Chapter Four Equivalence at the Grammatical Level 106
4.1Voice 106
4.2 Number 112
4.3 Parts of Speech 115
4.4 Mental Perspective of Language Users: Modulation 123

Chapter Five Conclusion 130
5.1 Findings of the Study 130
5.1.1 Equivalence at Word Level 130
5.1.2 Equivalence above Word Level 132
5.1.3 Equivalence at the Grammatical Level 133
5.2 Limitations of the Study 133
5.3 Suggestions for Future Research 134

References 136
Sources of Research Materials 143


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 Available Translation Techniques for CE

Translation at Word Level...............................................................................................................................7
Table 1.2 Available Translation Techniques for CE Translation above Word Level
…………………………………………………………………………………………7
Table 1.3 Available Translation Techniques for CE Translation at the Grammatical Level………………………………………………………………………………… 8
Table 2.1 Comparison of the Translation Principles by Nida and Newmark...............19
Table 2.2 Five Types of Equivalence by Koller……………………………………...20
Table 2.3 Chinese Characters that Resemble English Letters in Shape……………...36


 LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Research Procedures.....................................................................................6
Figure 2.1 Dynamic Equivalence…………………………………………………….16
Figure 2.2 The Two Translation Methods by Newmark……………………………..18




References
English

Asia’s Four Tigers. (2011, Oct). Happy 100th Birthday, Republic of China!
In Taiwan Panorama. 36(10), 6.

Baker, M. (1992). In other words: a coursebook on translation. London, United Kingdom: Routledge.

blue ribbon. (n.d.) In Wikipedia. Retrieved May. 16, 2012, from Wikipedia website:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_ribbon

borough. (n.d.) In Wikipedia. Retrieved Sep. 12, 2012, from Wikipedia website:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borough

Carter, R., Goddard, A, Reah, D, Sanger, K &; Swift, N. (2008). Words and things. In A. Beard. (Ed.), Working with text: A core introduction to language analysis. (3rd ed.). (pp.59-100). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

chaqiang-renyi. (n.d.) Chinese–English Dictionary of Modern Usage, Retrieved from
http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/Lindict/

Chesterman, A. (ed.) (1989). Readings in Translation Theory. Helsinki:Finn Lectura.

Chinese architecture. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved June 5, 2012, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_architecture

confetti. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Wikipedia website:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confetti

dried persimmons. (2011, Oct). When I’m good and ready. In Taiwan Panorama. 36(10), 1.

E. B White (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 21, 2012, from Wikipedia website:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._B._White

Even-Zohar, I. (1990). Polysystems studies. In Poetics Today. 11 (1).

fuss. (n.d.).In Dictionary.com. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/fuss

Gentzler, E. (2001). Contemporary translation studies, 2nd edition, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Guo, J. Z. (1995). Translatability in CE/EC translation. In S. W. Chan &;, D. E. Pollard (Eds.), An encyclopedia of translation: Chinese-English/ English-Chinese (pp.1057-1067). Hong Kong: The Chinese University.

Harvey, K. (1998). Compensation. In M. Baker &; K. Malmkjaer (Eds.), Routledg encyclopedia of translation studies. (pp.37-40). London and NewYork: Routledge.

Jakobson, R. (1959/2004). On linguistic aspect of translation. In L. Venuti (ed.) (2004), The Translation Studies Reader, 2ndedition, (pp.138-43).
London and New York: Routledge.

Koller, W. (1979/1989). Equivalence in translation theory.
(A. Chesterman ,Trans. ) In A. Chesterman (Ed.), Readings in Translation Theories (pp. 99-104). Helsinki, Finland: Oy Finn Lectura Ab.

landslide. (n.d.). In The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Retrieved from Free Dictionary Website:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/landslide

Leonardi, V. (2000) Equivalence in Translation: Between Myth and Reality. Translation Journal, 4.4. Retrieved from http://translationjournal.net/journal/14equiv.htm

Liukkonen, P. &; Pesonen, A. (2008). E(lwyn) B(rooks) White (1899-1985). In Kuusankosken kaupunginkirjasto . Retrieved from http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/ebwhite.htm

Ma, H. J. &; Miao, J. (2009). Guided reading: Dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence. In H. J. Ma &; J. Miao (Eds.), Selected readings of contemporary western translation theories (pp.4-7). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

MacFadyen, H. (n.d.). Parts of speech. HyperGrammer (the Writing Centre, University of Ottawa). Retrieved from http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/partsp.html

merry-maker. (n.d.). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved from
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/merry-maker

Molina, L. &; Albir, A. H. (2002). Translation Techniques Revisited: A Dynamic and Functionalist Approach. Meta, 47(4), 498-512.

monkey wrench (n.d.) In Wikipedia. Retrieved Sep. 15, 2012. From Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monkey_wrench

Munday, J. (2008). Introducing translation studies. London, United Kingdom: Routledge.

Munday, J (2009). The Routledge Companion of Translation Studies (Rev. ed.) New York, NY: Routledge.

Newmark, P. (1988). A textbook of translation. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.

Newmark, P. (2009) The linguistics and communicative stages in translation theory. In J. Munday (Ed.), The Routledge Companion of Translation Studies (Rev. ed.) (pp. 20-35). New York, NY: Routledge.

Nida, E. A. (1964). Towards a Science of Translating, Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Nida, E.A. &; Jin, D. (2006). On Translation: an Expanded Edition. Hong Kong, City University of Hong Kong Press.

Nida, E. A. and Taber, C.R. (1969 / 1982). The Theory and Practice of Translation, Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Nodelman, P. &; Reimer, M. (2003). The Pleasures of Children’s Literature. (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Pym, A. (2009). Advanced translation theories. Abindon, Oxen: Routledge.

Sauté. (n.d.).In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sauté

savoury (n.d.). Wikiedia. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from Wikipedia website:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savory_(disambiguation)

Shavit, Z. (2006). Translation of children’s literature. In G. Lathey (Ed.), The translation of children’s literature: A reader (pp.67-83). Clevedon, United Kingdom: Cromwell Press.

Shuttleworth, M., &; Cowie, M. (1997). Dictionary of translation studies. Manchester, United Kingdom: St. Jerome.

Stolt, B. (2006). How Emil becomes Michel: on the translation of children’s books. In
G. Lathey (Ed.), The translation of children’s literature: A reader (pp.67-83). Clevedon, United Kingdom: Cromwell Press.
Sydenham's chorea. (n.d.) In Wikiedia. Retrieved Sep. 20, 2012, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydenham%27s_chorea

Zhang. P. J. Translation of English Letters as Shape Describers. In S.W. Chan &;, D. E. Pollard (Eds.), An encyclopedia of translation: Chinese-English/ English-Chinese (pp.324-332). Hong Kong: The Chinese University.

Zhang, M. F., &; Pan, L. (2009). Introducing a Chinese perspective on translation shifts.The translator, 15(2), 351-374.

Chinese
Chen, D. A. (1997). English and Chinese Translation—A Comparative Study (New Ed.). Taipei: Bookman. 【陳定安。1997。《英漢比較與翻譯》。台北:書林。】

Ceng, T. Y. (2010, February 16). Cong「Hunian Year of the Tiger」qiantan「jieyi」﹝Web log post﹞. Retrieved from http://hugoscorner.blogspot.tw/2010/02/year-of-tiger.html
【曾泰元。2010年二月十六日。《從虎年Year of the Tiger淺談借譯》。】

Dong, X. J. (2003). A Study of E.B. White’s Fairy Tales. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Taipei Municipal University of Education.【董小菁。(2003)。懷特童話研究。臺北市立師範學院應用語言研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。】

Jiang, L. S. &;Yu, G. Y. (2002). Wailaici. [Electronic version]. Zhonghua wenhua yanjiuyuan. Retrieved from http://hk.chiculture.net/php/sframe.php?url=http://hk.chiculture.net/0612/html/b02/0612b02.html
【江藍生、于根元。2002。《外來詞》。中國文化研究院。】

Jiang, M. H. (2006).On translation of literary quotations in Xu’s 300 Tang poems. Journal of Qinzhou Teachers College, Vol. 21, No.1, 83-86.【蔣美紅(2006)。論許譯唐詩三百首典故的翻譯技巧。欽州師範高等專科學校學報,第21卷第1期,83-86。】

Jin, D. (1998). Dengxiao fanyi tansuo (Rev. ed.). Taipei: Bookman. 【金隄。1963。《等效翻譯探索(增訂版)》。台北。書林。】

Lai, T. Y. (2000). Lun tongshu fanyi yu feiwenxue fanyi xiangzuo zhi yuanze– yi Zhao Yuanren A Lisi manyou qijing ji wei li. Ertong wenxue xuekan. 4(11), 36-61. 
【賴慈芸。2000。《論童書翻譯與非文學翻譯相左之原則--以趙元任「阿麗思漫遊奇境記」為例》。兒童文學學刊,4 (11),36-61。】

Liu, M. C. (1997). A workbook for English-Chinese translation. Taipei:Bookman. 【劉宓慶。1997。《英漢翻譯訓練手冊》。台北。書林。】

Ye, Z. N. (2008). Advanced Course in English-Chinese translation. (2nd ed.) .Beijing: Tshing-hua University Press.【葉子南。2008。《高級英漢翻譯理論與實踐》。第二版。北京:清華大學出版社。】

Yu, G. Z. (2006). Zhong he xi. Hong Kong: Commercial Press. 【余光中。2006。《中和西》。香港:商務印書館。】

Zhang, D. C. (1993). Fanyi zhi yuanli yu jiqiao. Taipei: Kuo Chia Publishing.【張達聰。1993。《翻譯之原理與技巧》。台北:國家出版社。】

Zhang, P. J., Yu, Y. G., Li, Z. J. &; Peng, M. Y. (1993). Practical Translation :An Introductory Coursebook. Taipei: Bookman. 【張培基、喻雲根、李宗杰、彭謨禹。1993。《英漢翻譯教程》。台北:書林。】

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔