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研究生:傅潔芳
論文名稱:結合任務導向式動作訓練之職業教學法對智能障礙者於工作所需的動作技巧之影響–以擦拭為例
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Vocational Education Combined with Task-Oriented Training on Motor Skills Needed for Mentally Disabled Workers - A Case Study of Wiping Action
指導教授:謝協君謝協君引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立新竹教育大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:任務導向式動作訓練職業教學智能障礙者
外文關鍵詞:task-oriented trainingvocational educationintellectual disabilities
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目的:資料顯示本國智能障礙者多從事勞動工作,然而多數的職業教學法只針對智能障礙者的認知缺陷而設計,忽略了智能障礙者亦常有動作能力不佳的問題,故研究者嚐試將職業教學結合任務導向式動作訓練,其特色在於強調改善職業所需的動作技巧,以加強工作效率。本研究以擦拭動作為目標進行研究,目的在評估此教學法的成效。

方法:受試者為47名特殊學校高職部的學生,以班級為單位進行分配,實驗組共24名,採結合任務導向式動作訓練之職業教學法;對照組為23名,採工作分析法。介入前進行前測,介入十週後進行後測,測量工具為「傑考氏綜合職業能力評量」及「本土化身心障礙者工作樣本」中的「清潔擦拭工作樣本」。

結果:根據「清潔擦拭工作樣本」的前後測成績比較結果,顯示教學介入後,實驗組的時間及錯誤數成績皆顯著進步,而對照組唯有錯誤數成績有明顯改善。以「清潔擦拭工作樣本」後測成績進行組別比較,發現對於前測成績較差者,實驗組的後測成績預測值顯著優於對照組,意謂具有較佳的介入效果。而「傑考氏綜合職業能力評量」的分析結果指出實驗組與對照組的表現相當,前後測皆無顯著差異。

結論:結合任務導向式動作訓練之職業教學法能有效地改善擦拭動作表現,對於原始擦拭動作能力較差者而言,本教學法較工作分析法有更好的訓練成效,然而訓練效果具特定性,對於非訓練目標的功能性動作並無助益。
Purpose: The data showed that most of students with intellectual disabilities in our country were engaged in manual work. However, most of teaching approaches for vocational education dealt with the cognitive deficits in students with intellectual disabilities. Few articles discussed the intervention for the problems of poor motor abilities in students with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the researcher attempted to combine the vocational education with task-oriented training. The motor skills for the occupation and manual work efficiency were important. In this study, the wiping action was chosen to evaluate the task-oriented vocational training.

Methods: The study applied quasi-experimental design, forty-seven students in the vocational department of special school received either the experimental teaching approach (N=24) or task analysis method (N=23) for ten weeks. The pretest and posttest measurements were made by using two tests, which were the Jacobs Prevocational Skills Assessment and the "Surface Wiping" work sample. "Surface Wiping" is one item of the Work Sample Evaluation System for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

Results: The pretest-posttest comparisons of the "Surface Wiping" work sample showed that the intervention promoted significant improvements in time-taking and error rate for experimental group. The between-group analysis of the “Surface Wiping” work sample revealed significant differences in favor of experimental group for the subjects with poor results in the pretest scores. There were no significant differences in the results of the Jacobs Prevocational Skills between pretest and posttest for the two groups.

Conclusions: The task-oriented vocational training was found to be effective for the performance improvement of wiping action; it also provided a greater improvement for the individuals with poor initial performance of wiping action as compared with task analysis method. However, the training benefits were not found for the functional movements that were excluded from training objectives.
第一章 序論------------------------------------------------1

第二章 文獻探討 -------------------------------------------3
第一節 智能障礙者的體能及動作表現--------------------------3
第二節 智能障礙者常見的職業教學模式------------------------4
第三節 動作學習--------------------------------------------8
第四節 任務導向模式---------------------------------------12

第三章 研究方法與步驟 ------------------------------------19
第一節 研究目的-------------------------------------------19
第二節 名詞解釋-------------------------------------------19
第三節 研究對象-------------------------------------------20
第四節 研究設計-------------------------------------------20
第五節 評量工具-------------------------------------------21
第六節 訓練計畫-------------------------------------------22
第七節 研究限制-------------------------------------------24
第八節 資料處理-------------------------------------------25

第四章 結果與分析-----------------------------------------29
第一節 清潔擦拭工作樣本前後測成績比較---------------------29
第二節 清潔擦拭工作樣本後測成績組別比較-------------------33
第三節 傑考氏綜合職業能力評量前後測成績比較---------------37
第四節 綜合分析-------------------------------------------37

第五章 結論與建議 ----------------------------------------43
第一節 結論-----------------------------------------------43
第二節 建議-----------------------------------------------43

參考文獻--------------------------------------------------45

附件1 擦拭工作訓練時間表----------------------------------51
附件2-1 擦拭工作的任務分析--------------------------------52
附件2-2 個體能力評估總表----------------------------------53
附件3 擦試工作的動作成份訓練------------------------------54
附件4 擦拭工作的教學活動----------------------------------58

表次目錄
表一 對照組及實驗組前後測成績敘述性統計摘要表-------------29
表二 對照組相依樣本MANOVA分析摘要表-----------------------29
表三 對照組相依樣本ANOVA分析摘要表------------------------30
表四 實驗組相依樣本MANOVA分析摘要表-----------------------31
表五 實驗組相依樣本ANOVA分析摘要表------------------------32
表六 上下擦拭錯誤數-前測及後測共變數分析摘要表------------35
表七 符號考驗分析摘要-傑考氏綜合職業能力評量--------------37

圖次目錄
圖一 動作參數、動作成果與個別動作的關係圖-----------------11
圖二 動作參數、動作成果與初始條件的關係圖-----------------11
圖三 感覺結果、動作成果與初始條件的關係圖-----------------11
圖四 動作基模與動作程式理論的關係架構---------------------11
圖五 動作控制之系統方式概念-------------------------------14
圖六 研究流程圖-------------------------------------------23
圖七 左右擦拭時間-前測及後測------------------------------33
圖八 上下擦拭時間-前測及後測------------------------------33
圖九 平行擦拭時間-前測及後測------------------------------34
圖十 前後擦拭時間-前測及後測------------------------------34
圖十一 左右擦拭錯誤數-前測及後測--------------------------35
圖十二 平行擦拭錯誤數-前測及後測--------------------------36
圖十三 前後擦拭錯誤數-前測及後測--------------------------36
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