(3.230.173.249) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/21 05:05
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:鍾靜婷
研究生(外文):Chin-Ting Chuang
論文名稱:探討台灣綠蜂膠及其純化物蜂膠素G對大鼠肝臟星狀細胞株抗纖維化之研究
論文名稱(外文):To Investigate Antifibrotic Effect of Taiwanese Green Propolis and Its Extracts Propolin G on Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells
指導教授:陳怡伶陳怡伶引用關係俞松良俞松良引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Lin ChenSung-Liang Yu
口試委員:黃怡超陳裕文林學宜
口試委員(外文):Yi-Tsau HuangYue-Wen ChenHsueh-Yi Lin
口試日期:2013-06-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:生物技術與動物科學系生物技術碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:台灣綠蜂膠蜂膠素 G細胞凋亡膠原蛋白肝纖維化α-平滑肌肌動蛋白轉型生長因子-β1
外文關鍵詞:Taiwanese green propolispropolin Gapoptosiscollagenliver fibrosisα-SMATGF-β1
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:443
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:59
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
近年來慢性肝病及肝硬化排名我國十大死亡原因之一;在患有肝疾病之患者不論一開始的肝損傷原因為何,肝纖維化是大部分慢性肝病所共有的特徵。在肝臟中,肝星狀細胞 (hepatic stellate cells, HSCs) 的活化是產生肝纖維化的主要原因,隨肝臟損傷程度增加,α-平滑肌肌動蛋白 (α-smooth muscle actin, α-SMA) 的表現也會上升進而導致胞外基質 (extracellular matrix, ECM) 過度沉積,朝向纖維化的現象發生。目前許多研究致力於尋找出能治療或改善肝纖維化的藥物。而蜂膠是非常受歡迎的保健產品,早在三千多年前就有人類將之作為天然醫療用的記載,近年來的研究證實,蜂膠具有抗氧化、抗腫瘤、抗發炎以及保肝的功能。本實驗所使用的蜂膠素 G (propolin G) 是從台灣綠蜂膠 (Taiwanese green propolis) 萃取物所分離出來,屬於異物二烯類黃酮,目前已知具有神經保護以及抗癌之功效。本實驗藉由 TGF-β1 刺激活化大鼠肝臟星狀細胞株 HSC-T6,以台灣綠蜂膠萃取物或蜂膠素 G 處理細胞探討其對細胞的影響。結果顯示,以 TGF-β1 1.5 ng/ml 可明顯提高 α-SMA 蛋白表現;隨著台灣綠蜂膠萃取物或蜂膠素 G 的濃度越高,細胞生長情形明顯被抑制;並且在西方墨點分析 α-SMA、膠原蛋白 (collagen) 有降低的現象;凋亡相關蛋白結果顯示,隨著台灣綠蜂膠萃取物或蜂膠素 G 的濃度越高 cleaved caspase 3、cleaved caspase 7 表現也越明顯,顯示細胞有可能是透過細胞凋亡的方式抑制其細胞生長;在處理台灣綠蜂膠萃取物或蜂膠素 G 1 小時後,磷酸化 JNK 有提高並且 Smad2/3 下降之情形;綜合實驗結果,台灣綠蜂膠萃取物或蜂膠素 G 可藉由抑制細胞生長,並且活化細胞走向凋亡而降低肝臟纖維化之現象。
Chronic and cirrhosis of liver diseases are two of the top ten causes of death in recent years. For all of these diseases there is a common pathologic mechanism that leads to fibrosis. Many studies are being made to find a treatment or amelioration of liver fibrosis drugs. Propolis is a complex mixture of which the main bioactive compound is polyphenolic. Several studies show that propolis has antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. Prenylflavanones is main bioactive of Taiwanese green propolis, from which propolins are isolated. In this study, we use propolin G which is isolated from Taiwanese green propolis and Taiwanese green propolis to vestigate the anti liver fibrosis. In liver, active hepatic stellate cells are the key fibrogenic cells, and as liver injury gets worse, α-smooth muscle actin will increase and result to extracellular matrix excessive accumulation leading to fibrosis. In this study, we use rat hepatic stellate HSC-T6 cell lines to investigate how Taiwanese green Taiwanese green propolis and propolin G influences cells. By using TGF-β1, we stimulate cell activation and treat Taiwanese green propolis or propolin G to investigate how possible mechanism of protein presents. The result showed that Taiwanese green propolis or propolin G changed the morphology and reduced α-SMA and collagen presents, and caused growth inhibition of HSC-T6 cell line. Furthermore, Taiwanese green propolis or propolin G induced apoptosis associated protein expression (cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-7) and pJNK activity, but reduced pSmad2/3 expression. Therefore, Taiwanese green propolis and propolin G can induce cell death in activated HSCs through apoptosis to reduce liver fibrosis.
摘要......................................................................................................... I
Abstract .................................................................................................. III
誌謝........................................................................................................ IV
目錄 ....................................................................................................... VI
附圖次 ..................................................................................................... IX
圖次 ....................................................................................................... X
縮寫表 ..................................................................................................... XI
第一章 前言 ................................................................................................. 1
第一節 肝臟................................................................................................ 1
1-1 肝臟的構造與功能...................................................................................... 1
1-2 肝臟細胞的組成....................................................................................... 2
1-3 肝纖維化與肝臟星狀細胞................................................................................. 3
1-4 轉化生長因子TGF-β(Transforming growth factor β)與 Samd 訊息傳遞....................................... 7
第二節 蜂膠................................................................................................ 9
2-1 蜂膠介紹............................................................................................. 9
2-2 台灣綠蜂膠和蜂膠素 G.................................................................................. 10
2-3 蜂膠和保肝........................................................................................... 11
第三節 細胞凋亡............................................................................................. 12
第二章 實驗目的 .............................................................................................. 15
第三章 實驗材料 .............................................................................................. 16
第一節 實驗細胞............................................................................................. 16
第二節 台灣綠蜂膠萃取物與蜂膠素 G.............................................................................. 16
第三節 實驗儀器............................................................................................. 16
第四節 藥品試劑............................................................................................. 17
第四章 實驗方法與步驟.......................................................................................... 20
第一節 實驗流程............................................................................................. 20
第二節 細胞培養............................................................................................. 21
2-1 細胞培養............................................................................................. 21
2-2 冷凍細胞............................................................................................. 21
2-3 解凍細胞............................................................................................. 22
2-4 細胞計數............................................................................................. 22
第三節 細胞存活率分析 (MTT assay)............................................................................. 23
第四節 西方墨點法 (Western blot) ............................................................................ 24
4-1 細胞蛋白質萃取......................................................................................... 24
4-2 樣本蛋白質濃度的定量分析................................................................................. 24
4-3 聚丙烯醯胺膠體電泳...................................................................................... 25
4-4 西方墨點分析法......................................................................................... 25
第五節 反轉錄酶-聚合酶鏈合反應 (Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR)........................ 25
5-1 RNA 純化............................................................................................. 25
5-2 反轉錄酶反應 (Reverse Transcription)……................................................................. 26
5-3 聚合酶鏈合反應 (Polymerase Chain Reaction) ............................................................ 26
第六節 統計分析.............................................................................................. 27
第五章 實驗結果 ............................................................................................... 28
第一節 TGP 萃取物和 PPG 對HSC-T6 細胞生長之影響................................................................. 28
第二節 TGF-β1 對 HSC-T6 細胞之影響............................................................................ 28
第三節 TGP 萃取物及 PPG 分別合併 TGF-β1 對 HSC-T6 細胞之影響….................................................... 29
第四節 TGP 萃取物及 PPG 對 TGF-β1 誘導星狀細胞 α-SMA 以及 collagen 蛋白質表現之影響................................. 29
第五節 TGP 萃取物及 PPG 對 HSC-T6 凋亡之研究.................................................................... 30
第六節 TGF-β1 對 HSC-T6 細胞 MAPK 和 Smad2/3 路徑之影響......................................................... 30
第六章 討論 ................................................................................................... 32
第一節台灣綠蜂膠萃取物及蜂膠素 G 抑制肝纖維化的效果..................................................................32
第二節 現今肝炎治療方法及台灣綠蜂膠未來展望........................................................................ 36
第七章 圖表 ................................................................................................... 40
參考文獻....................................................................................................... 55

Adams JM (2003) Ways of dying: multiple pathways to apoptosis. Genes Dev 17: 2481-2495.

Ahern M, Hall P, Halliday J, Liddle C, Olynyk J, et al. (1996) Hepatic stellate cell nomenclature. Hepatology 23: 193.

Ahmad A, Ahmad R (2012) Understanding the mechanism of hepatic fibrosis and potential therapeutic approaches. Saudi J Gastroenterol 18: 155-167.

Aleffi S, Petrai I, Bertolani C, Parola M, Colombatto S, Novo E, Vizzutti F, Anania FA, Milani S, Rombouts K, Laffi G, Pinzani M, Marra F (2005) Upregulation of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines by leptin in human hepatic stellate cells. Hepatology 42: 1339-1348.

Antonsson B, Montessuit S, Lauper S, Eskes R, Martinou JC (2000) Bax oligomerization is required for channel-forming activity in liposomes and to trigger cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Biochem J 345 Pt 2: 271-278.

Bae Y, Lee S, Kim SH (2011) Chrysin suppresses mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation: involvement of calcium, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 254: 56-64.

Bankova V (2005) Recent trends and important developments in propolis research. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2: 29-32.

Bankova VS, Castro SLd, Marcucci MC (2000) Propolis: recent advances in chemistry and plant origin. Apidologie 31: 3-15.

Bataller R, Brenner DA (2005) Liver fibrosis. J Clin Invest 115: 209-218.

Benyon RC, Arthur MJ (2001) Extracellular matrix degradation and the role of hepatic stellate cells. Semin Liver Dis 21: 373-384.

Bhadauria M (2012) Propolis preents hepatorenal injury induced by chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012: 235358.

Blankenberg FG, Tait J, Ohtsuki K, Strauss HW (2000) Apoptosis: the importance of nuclear medicine. Nucl Med Commun 21: 241-250.

Boigk G, Stroedter L, Herbst H, Waldschmidt J, Riecken EO, Schuppan D (1997) Silymarin retards collagen accumulation in early and advanced biliary fibrosis secondary to complete bile duct obliteration in rats. Hepatology 26: 643-649.

Bran GM, Sommer UJ, Goessler UR, Hormann K, Riedel F, Sadick H (2010) TGF-β1 antisense impacts the SMAD signalling system in fibroblasts from keloid scars. Anticancer Res 30: 3459-3463.

Brenner C, Kroemer G (2000) Apoptosis. Mitochondria--the death signal integrators. Science 289: 1150-1151.

Bunout D, Hirsch S, Petermann M, de la Maza MP, Silva G, Kelly M, Ugarte G, Iturriaga H (1992) [Controlled study of the effect of silymarin on alcoholic liver disease]. Rev Med Chil 120: 1370-1375.

Burdock GA (1998) Review of the biological properties and toxicity of bee propolis (propolis). Food Chem Toxicol 36: 347-363.

Burt AD (1999) Pathobiology of hepatic stellate cells. J Gastroenterol 34: 299-304.

Cacciapuoti F, Scognamiglio A, Palumbo R, Forte R, Cacciapuoti F (2013) Silymarin in non alcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Hepatol 5: 109-113.

Chen CN, Wu CL, Lin JK (2004) Propolin C from propolis induces apoptosis through activating caspases, Bid and cytochrome c release in human melanoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol 67: 53-66.

Chen CN, Wu CL, Lin JK (2007a) Apoptosis of human melanoma cells induced by the novel compounds propolin A and propolin B from Taiwenese propolis. Cancer Lett 245: 218-231.

Chen CN, Wu CL, Shy HS, Lin JK (2003) Cytotoxic prenylflavanones from Taiwanese propolis. J Nat Prod 66: 503-506.

Chen CS, Wu CH, Lai YC, Lee WS, Chen HM, Chen RJ, Chen LC, Ho YS, Wang YJ (2008a) NF-kappaB-activated tissue transglutaminase is involved in ethanol-induced hepatic injury and the possible role of propolis in preventing fibrogenesis. Toxicology 246: 148-157.

Chen HN, Fan S, Weng CF (2007b) Down-regulation of TGFbeta1 and leptin ameliorates thioacetamide-induced liver injury in lipopolysaccharide-primed rats. J Endotoxin Res 13: 176-188.

Chen YW, Wu SW, Ho KK, Lin SB, Huang CY, Chen CN (2008b) Characterisation of Taiwanese propolis collected from different locations and
seasons. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88: 412-419.

Clark DA, Coker R (1998) Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Int J Biochem Cell Biol 30: 293-298.

Cohen JJ (1991) Programmed cell death in the immune system. Adv Immunol 50: 55-85.

Cohen MM, Jr. (2003) TGF beta/Smad signaling system and its pathologic correlates. Am J Med Genet A 116A: 1-10.

Cotter TG (2009) Apoptosis and cancer: the genesis of a research field. Nat Rev Cancer 9: 501-507.

Cunningham CC, Van Horn CG (2003) Energy availability and alcohol-related liver pathology. Alcohol Res Health 27: 291-299.

Daleprane JB, Abdalla DS (2013) Emerging roles of propolis: antioxidant, cardioprotective, and antiangiogenic actions. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013: 175135.

Doganyigit Z, Kup FO, Silici S, Deniz K, Yakan B, Atayoglu T (2013) Protective effects of propolis on female rats' histopathological, biochemical and genotoxic changes during LPS induced endotoxemia. Phytomedicine 20: 632-639.

Dooley S, Delvoux B, Lahme B, Mangasser-Stephan K, Gressner AM (2000) Modulation of transforming growth factor beta response and signaling during transdifferentiation of rat hepatic stellate cells to myofibroblasts. Hepatology 31: 1094-1106.

Drago L, De Vecchi E, Nicola L, Gismondo MR (2007) In vitro antimicrobial activity of a novel propolis formulation (Actichelated propolis). J Appl Microbiol 103: 1914-1921.

Dunning S, Hannivoort RA, de Boer JF, Buist-Homan M, Faber KN, Moshage H (2009) Superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide inhibit proliferation of activated rat stellate cells and induce different modes of cell death. Liver Int 29: 922-932.

Farghali H, Kamenikova L, Hynie S, Kmonickova E (2000) Silymarin effects on intracellular calcuim and cytotoxicity: a study in perfused rat hepatocytes after oxidative stress injury. Pharmacol Res 41: 231-237.

Friedman SL (1993) Seminars in medicine of the Beth Israel Hospital, Boston. The cellular basis of hepatic fibrosis. Mechanisms and treatment strategies. N Engl J Med 328: 1828-1835.

Friedman SL (2003) Liver fibrosis -- from bench to bedside. J Hepatol 38 Suppl 1: S38-53.

Friedman SL (2008) Mechanisms of hepatic fibrogenesis. Gastroenterology 134: 1655-1669.

Fulda S, Debatin KM (2006) Extrinsic versus intrinsic apoptosis pathways in anticancer chemotherapy. Oncogene 25: 4798-4811.

Geerts A (2001) History, heterogeneity, developmental biology, and functions of quiescent hepatic stellate cells. Semin Liver Dis 21: 311-335.

Goldsmith ZG, Dhanasekaran DN (2007) G protein regulation of MAPK networks. Oncogene 26: 3122-3142.

Gong W, Pecci A, Roth S, Lahme B, Beato M, Gressner AM (1998) Transformation-dependent susceptibility of rat hepatic stellate cells to apoptosis induced by soluble Fas ligand. Hepatology 28: 492-502.

Gressner AM (1995) Cytokines and cellular crosstalk involved in the activation of fat-storing cells. J Hepatol 22: 28-36.

Gressner AM, Polzar B, Lahme B, Mannherz HG (1996) Induction of rat liver parenchymal cell apoptosis by hepatic myofibroblasts via transforming growth factor beta. Hepatology 23: 571-581.

Gribel NV, Pashinskii VG (1990) [The antitumor properties of honey]. Vopr Onkol 36: 704-709.

Guimaraes NS, Mello JC, Paiva JS, Bueno PC, Berretta AA, Torquato RJ, Nantes IL, Rodrigues T (2012) Baccharis dracunculifolia, the main source of green propolis, exhibits potent antioxidant activity and prevents oxidative mitochondrial damage. Food Chem Toxicol 50: 1091-1097.

Hsu YC, Chiu YT, Lee CY, Lin YL, Huang YT (2004) Increases in fibrosis-related gene transcripts in livers of dimethylnitrosamine-intoxicated rats. J Biomed Sci 11: 408-417.

Huang MT, Ferraro T (1992) Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health II:
American Chemical Society. pp. 8-34.

Huang WJ, Huang CH, Wu CL, Lin JK, Chen YW, Lin CL, Chuang SE, Huang CY, Chen C N (2007) Propolin G, a prenylflavanone, isolated from Taiwanese propolis, induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in brain cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 55: 7366-7376.

Huang WJ, Liang YC, Chuang SE, Chi LL, Lee CY, Lin CW, Chen AL, Huang JS, Chiu CJ, Lee CF, Huang CY, Chen CN (2012) NBM-HD-1: A Novel
Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor with Anticancer Activity. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012: 781417.

Javelaud D, Mauviel A (2004) Mammalian transforming growth factor-betas: Smad signaling and physio-pathological roles. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36: 1161-1165.

Juman S, Yasui N, Ikeda K, Ueda A, Sakanaka M, Negishi H, Miki T (2012) Caffeic acid phenethyl ester suppresses the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in hypertrophic adipocytes through lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Biol Pharm Bull 35: 1941-1946.

Kang LP, Qi LH, Zhang JP, Shi N, Zhang M, Wu TM, Chen J (2001) Effect of genistein and quercetin on proliferation, collagen synthesis, and type I procollagen mRNA levels of rat hepatic stellate cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin 22: 793-796.

Kao HF, Chang-Chien PW, Chang WT, Yeh TM, Wang JY (2013) Propolis inhibits TGF-beta1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human
alveolar epithelial cells via PPARgamma activation. Int Immunopharmacol 15: 565-574.

Kaufmann SH, Desnoyers S, Ottaviano Y, Davidson NE, Poirier GG (1993) Specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: an early marker of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Cancer Res 53: 3976-3985.

Kerr JF, Wyllie AH, Currie AR (1972) Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics. Br J Cancer 26: 239-257.

Knittel T, Janneck T, Muller L, Fellmer P, Ramadori G (1996) Transforming growth factor beta 1-regulated gene expression of Ito cells. Hepatology 24: 352-360.

Knittel T, Kobold D, Dudas J, Saile B, Ramadori G (1999) Role of the Ets-1 transcription factor during activation of rat hepatic stellate cells in culture. Am J Pathol 155: 1841-1848.

Konstantinopoulos PA, Vandoros GP, Papavassiliou AG (2006) FK228 (depsipeptide): a HDAC inhibitor with pleiotropic antitumor activities. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 58: 711-715.

Kus I, Colakoglu N, Pekmez H, Seckin D, Ogeturk M, Sarsilmaz M (2004) Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Acta Histochem 106: 289-297.

Kvasnicka F, Biba B, Sevcik R, Voldrich M, Kratka J (2003) Analysis of the active components of silymarin. J Chromatogr A 990: 239-245.

Lavrik IN, Golks A, Krammer PH (2005) Caspases: pharmacological manipulation of cell death. J Clin Invest 115: 2665-2672.

Lin SC, Chung CY, Chiang CL, Hsu SH (1999) The influence of propolis ethanol extract on liver microsomal enzymes and glutathione after chronic alcohol administration. Am J Chin Med 27: 83-93.

Liu X, Zou H, Widlak P, Garrard W, Wang X (1999) Activation of the apoptotic endonuclease DFF40 (caspase-activated DNase or nuclease). Oligomerization and direct interaction with histone H1. J Biol Chem 274: 13836-13840.

Malik R, Selden C, Hodgson H (2002) The role of non-parenchymal cells in liver growth. Semin Cell Dev Biol 13: 425-431.

Marcucci M, C. (1995) Propolis: chemical composition, biological properties and therapeutic activity. Apidologie 26: 83-99.

Marcellin P, Gane E, Buti M, Afdhal N, Sievert W, et al. (2013) Regression of cirrhosis during treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for chronic hepatitis B: a 5-year open-label follow-up study. Lancet 381: 468-475.

Marcellin P, Heathcote EJ, Buti M, Gane E, de Man RA, et al. (2008) Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus adefovir dipivoxil for chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 359: 2442-2455.

Massague J, Chen YG (2000) Controlling TGF-beta signaling. Genes Dev 14: 627-644.

Mathurin P, Abdelnour M, Ramond MJ, Carbonell N, Fartoux L, Serfaty L, Valla D, Poupon R, Chaput JC, Naveau S (2003) Early change in bilirubin levels is an important prognostic factor in severe alcoholic hepatitis treated with prednisolone. Hepatology 38: 1363-1369.

Mathurin P, Duchatelle V, Ramond MJ, Degott C, Bedossa P, Erlinger S, Benhamou JP, Chaput JC, Rueff B, Poynard T (1996) Survival and prognostic factors in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis treated with prednisolone. Gastroenterology 110: 1847-1853.

Mishra R, Zhu L, Eckert RL, Simonson MS (2007) TGF-beta-regulated collagen type I accumulation: role of Src-based signals. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292: C1361-1369.

Moreno M, Bataller R (2008) Cytokines and renin-angiotensin system signaling in hepatic fibrosis. Clin Liver Dis 12: 825-852, ix.

Mormone E, George J, Nieto N (2011) Molecular pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and current therapeutic approaches. Chem Biol Interact 193: 225-231.

Morrison SJ, White PM, Zock C, Anderson DJ (1999) Prospective identification, isolation by flow cytometry, and in vivo self-renewal of
multipotent mammalian neural crest stem cells. Cell 96: 737-749.

Nicholson DW, Thornberry NA (2003) Apoptosis. Life and death decisions. Science 299: 214-215.

Nitta T, Kim JS, Mohuczy D, Behrns KE (2008) Murine cirrhosis induces hepatocyte epithelial mesenchymal transition and alterations in survival signaling pathways. Hepatology 48: 909-919.

Ozturk G, Ginis Z, Akyol S, Erden G, Gurel A, Akyol O (2012) The anticancer mechanism of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE): review of melanomas, lung and prostate cancers. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 16: 2064-2068.

Pares A, Planas R, Torres M, Caballeria J, Viver JM, Acero D, Panes J, Rigau J, Santos J, Rodes J (1998) Effects of silymarin in alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of the liver: results of a controlled, double-blind, randomized and multicenter trial. J Hepatol 28: 615-621.

Peluso MR (2006) Flavonoids attenuate cardiovascular disease, inhibit phosphodiesterase, and modulate lipid homeostasis in adipose tissue and liver. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 231: 1287-1299.

Poynard T, McHutchison J, Manns M, Trepo C, Lindsay K, Goodman Z, Ling MH, Albrecht J (2002) Impact of pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin on liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 122: 1303-1313.

Qian J, Zhang JS, Wang XQ, Ji JL, Mei S (2009) Fenretinide stimulates the apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells and ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in mice. Hepatol Res 39: 1229-1247.

Russo A, Longo R, Vanella A (2002) Antioxidant activity of propolis: role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and galangin. Fitoterapia 73 Suppl 1: S21-29.

Saile B, Knittel T, Matthes N, Schott P, Ramadori G (1997) CD95/CD95L-mediated apoptosis of the hepatic stellate cell. A mechanism
terminating uncontrolled hepatic stellate cell proliferation during hepatic tissue repair. Am J Pathol 151: 1265-1272.

Saller R, Meier R, Brignoli R (2001) The use of silymarin in the treatment of liver diseases. Drugs 61: 2035-2063.

Sato M, Suzuki S, Senoo H (2003) Hepatic stellate cells: unique characteristics in cell biology and phenotype. Cell Struct Funct 28: 105-112.

Schiller M, Javelaud D, Mauviel A (2004) TGF-beta-induced SMAD signaling and gene regulation: consequences for extracellular matrix remodeling and wound healing. J Dermatol Sci 35: 83-92.

Schinoni MI, Parana R (2006) [Apoptosis and progression of hepatic fibrosis in liver diseases]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam 36: 211-217.

Schnabl B, Bradham CA, Bennett BL, Manning AM, Stefanovic B, Brenner DA (2001) TAK1/JNK and p38 have opposite effects on rat hepatic stellate cells. Hepatology 34: 953-963.

Senoo H (2004) Structure and function of hepatic stellate cells. Med Electron Microsc 37: 3-15.

Sforcin JM, Bankova V (2011) Propolis: is there a potential for the development of new drugs? J Ethnopharmacol 133: 253-260.

Shek FW, Benyon RC (2004) How can transforming growth factor beta be targeted usefully to combat liver fibrosis? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 16: 123-126.

Shimizu T, Hino A, Tsutsumi A, Park YK, Watanabe W, Kurokawa M (2008) Anti-influenza virus activity of propolis in vitro and its efficacy against influenza infection in mice. Antivir Chem Chemother 19: 7-13.

Sun B, Karin M (2013) Inflammation and liver tumorigenesis. Frontiers of Medicine: 1-13.

Ten Dijke P, Hill CS (2004) New insights into TGF-beta-Smad signalling. Trends Biochem Sci 29: 265-273.

Thiery JP, Acloque H, Huang RY, Nieto MA (2009) Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in development and disease. Cell 139: 871-890.

Thornberry NA (1998) Caspases: key mediators of apoptosis. Chem Biol 5: R97-103.

Wasser S, Ho JM, Ang HK, Tan CE (1998) Salvia miltiorrhiza reduces experimentally-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. J Hepatol 29: 760-771.

Watabe M, Hishikawa K, Takayanagi A, Shimizu N, Nakaki T (2004) Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces apoptosis by inhibition of NFkappaB and activation of Fas in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. J Biol Chem 279: 6017-6026.

Watanabe MA, Amarante MK, Conti BJ, Sforcin JM (2011) Cytotoxic constituents of propolis inducing anticancer effects: a review. J Pharm
Pharmacol 63: 1378-1386.

Wendt MK, Allington TM, Schiemann WP (2009) Mechanisms of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by TGF-beta. Future Oncol 5: 1145-1168.

Weng MS, Liao CH, Chen CN, Wu CL, Lin JK (2007) Propolin H from Taiwanese propolis induces G1 arrest in human lung carcinoma cells. J Agric Food Chem 55: 5289-5298.

William PL, Bannister LH, Berry MM, Collins P, Dyson M, Drusek JE, Ferguson MWI (1995) Gray’s anatomy. Churchill Livingstone 38th ed.

Wyllie AH, Kerr JF, Currie AR (1980) Cell death: the significance of apoptosis. Int Rev Cytol 68: 251-306.

Xia JF, Gao JJ, Inagaki Y, Kokudo N, Nakata M, Tang W (2013) Flavonoids as potential anti-hepatocellular carcinoma agents: Recent approaches using HepG2 cell line. Drug Discov Ther 7: 1-8.

Zhang M, Zhang JP, Ji HT, Wang JS, Qian DH (2000) Effect of six flavonoids on proliferation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin 21: 253-256.

陳嘉南。2003。台灣蜂膠之抗癌機制與促進神經幹細胞生長及分化的探討及茶成分對神經幹細胞分化之研究。國立台灣大學生物化學暨分子生物研究所 博士論文。

葉琇如。2009。台灣綠蜂膠的抗菌活性及其膠源植物的研究。國立宜蘭大學動物科技系研究所 碩士論文。


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔