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研究生:賴羿帆
研究生(外文):Yi-Fan Lai
論文名稱:擠壓加工對發芽糙米γ-胺基丁酸含量及理化性質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Extrusion Processing on the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Content and Physicochemical Properties of Germinated Brown Rice
指導教授:林貞信
指導教授(外文):Jenshinn Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:發芽糙米γ-胺基丁酸擠壓加工理化性質
外文關鍵詞:germinated brown riceγ-aminobutyric acidextrusion processingphysicochemical properties
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發芽糙米富含豐富的γ-胺基丁酸(γ-aminobutyric acid;GABA),GABA具有預防阿茲海默症、動脈硬化及降低血壓等生理功能,更具有高熱穩定之特性。擠壓技術為具有高溫短時間、連續化、高產率及高能效率等多項優點的加工技術。所以本研究想要探討不同品種發芽糙米(高雄145號、台南11號及台農71號發芽糙米),經由不同模具溫度(100、110及120℃)及螺軸轉速(200、300及400 rpm)之擠壓加工後,其擠出物GABA含量及理化性質之變化。研究結果顯示,模具溫度及螺軸轉速對擠出物GABA含量無顯著性影響(p>0.05);擠出物吸水性指標及膨潤力隨著模具溫度及螺軸轉速提高而增加,而水溶性指標隨之降低;硬度、最大剪切力及假密度皆會隨著螺軸轉速的增加而減少;由變異數分析結果發現,模具溫度對擠出物水溶性指標、吸水性指標、膨潤力、徑向膨發率及縱向膨發率皆具有極顯著之影響(p &;lt; 0.01)。整體而言,發芽糙米經由擠壓加工後,其GABA含量無明顯改變,其中以高雄145號發芽糙米於模具溫度110℃、螺軸轉速為300 rpm時,所得之擠出物GABA含量最高(17.10 mg/100 g dw)。
Germinated brown rice is known for the rich γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The GABA has not only many physiological functions such as preventing Alzheimer’s disease and atherosclerosis, depressing blood pressure etc., but also has a high thermal stability of the characteristics. Extrusion technology with advantages of high temperature short time, continuous, high productivity, and high energy efficiency is said to be one the state of the art technologies. A factorial design was employed to investigate the influence of germinated brown rice types (Kaohsiung 145, Tainan 11, and Tainung 71), die temperature (100, 110, and 120℃) and screw speed (200, 300, and 400 rpm) on the GABA content and physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice. Results of the study showed that GABA contents in Kaohsiung 145 of germinated brown rice were significantly (p &;lt; 0.05) higher than Tainan 11 and Tainung 71 of germinated brown rice after extrusion processing. The die temperature and screw speed had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the GABA content. With an increase on die temperature and screw speed, there was a concomitant increase on water absorption indices, swelling power and a decrease on water solubility indices. With an increase on screw speed, there was a concomitant decrease on hardness, maximum shear force and bulk density. Results of the variance analysis showed that the die temperature had the significant correlation (p &;lt; 0.01) with the properties of water solubility indices, water absorption indices, swelling power, radial expansion and longitudinal expansion after extrusion. On the whole, the results showed that GABA content in germinated brown rice extrudates was not difference from the unprocessed germinated brown rice. When the geminated brown rice Kaohsiung 145 was extruded by die temperature 110℃ and screw speed 300 rpm, its extrudate had the highest GABA content (17.10 mg/100 g dw).

摘要...I
Abstract...II
謝誌...IV
圖目錄...X
表目錄...XII
第1章 前言...1
第2章 文獻回顧...3
2.1 稻米(Rice)...3
2.1.1 稻米之分類與結構...3
2.1.2 稻米之營養成分...6
2.1.2.1 碳水化合物...6
2.1.2.2 蛋白質...10
2.1.2.3 脂質...11
2.2 糙米(Brown rice)...11
2.2.1 糙米之簡介...11
2.2.2 糙米之生理功能...14
2.3 發芽糙米...14
2.3.1 發芽之簡介...14
2.3.2 發芽糙米之特性...17
2.3.2.1 物理特性...17
2.3.2.2 化學特性...20
2.4 γ-胺基丁酸(GABA)...20
2.4.1 GABA之簡介及代謝...20
2.4.2 GABA之生理功能...21
2.5 擠壓技術...22
2.5.1 擠壓技術之簡介...22
2.5.2 擠壓技術之優點...23
2.5.3 擠壓機之分類...26
2.5.4 擠壓休閒點心食品...30
第3章 材料與方法...31
3.1實驗設計...31
3.2 實驗材料與設備...36
3.2.1 實驗材料...36
3.2.2 實驗設備...36
3.3 原料基本成份測定...37
3.3.1 水分含量測定...37
3.3.2粗蛋白含量測定...38
3.3.3粗脂肪含量測定...38
3.3.4 灰分含量測定...38
3.3.5總碳水化合物測定...39
3.4 發芽糙米擠壓膨發實驗...39
3.4.1擠壓實驗原料製備...39
3.4.2擠出物擠壓之流程與樣品收集...39
3.4.3擠出物粉末製備...39
3.5測定項目及分析方法...40
3.5.1色澤...40
3.5.2水溶性指標、吸水性指標及膨潤力...40
3.5.3膨發特性(Expansion ratio)...40
3.5.3.1 徑向膨發率...40
3.5.3.2 縱向膨發率...41
3.5.4 硬度...41
3.5.5最大剪切力...41
3.5.6 假密度 41
3.5.7 GABA 高效能液相層析分析方法...42
3.5.7.1 GABA之標準品溶液配製...42
3.5.7.2 檢品之配製...42
3.5.7.3 2-Hydroxynaphthaldehyde(HN)衍生法...42
3.5.7.3.1 HN衍生溶液之配製...42
3.5.7.3.2 HN衍生流程...42
3.5.7.4 檢量線製作...43
3.5.7.5 HPLC分析條件...43
3.6發芽糙米產品製作...43
3.6.1發芽糙米膨發休閒點心...43
3.6.2 發芽糙米即食沖泡產品...44
3.7感官品評...44
3.8 統計分析...44
第4章 結果與討論...49
4.1 原料之一般組成份分析...49
4.2 擠出物之理化性質分析...49
4.2.1 色澤...49
4.2.2水溶性指標(Water solubility index;WSI)、吸水性指標(Water absorption index;WAI)及膨潤力(Swelling power)...58
4.2.3膨發特性(Expansion ratio)...71
4.2.3.1徑向膨發率(Radial expansion)...71
4.2.3.2縱向膨發率(Longitudinal expansion)...79
4.2.4 硬度(Hardness)...83
4.2.5 最大剪切力...87
4.2.6 假密度(Bulk density)...89
4.2.7 GABA含量...96
4.2.8感官品評...103
4.2.8.1發芽糙米即食沖泡飲品...103
4.2.8.2發芽糙米膨發休閒點心...103
第5章 結論與建議...110
5.1 結論...110
5.2 建議...111
第6章 參考文獻...112
作者簡介...129

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