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研究生:尤偉銘
研究生(外文):Wei-Ming Yu
論文名稱:高效能蒸籠對饅頭品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of high-performance steamer on the quality of steamed bread
指導教授:楊季清楊季清引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Ching Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:蒸籠溫度饅頭品質糊化度
外文關鍵詞:SteamerTemperatureSteamed breadQualityGelatinization degree
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  台灣傳統蒸籠利用蒸氣熱將中式麵粉類產品蒸熟食用,例如:包子、饅頭及碗粿…等,產品品質容易受到蒸氣溫度及加熱之時間影響。目前傳統蒸籠型式多屬於開口較大之蒸氣加熱方式,造成蒸氣溫度較低、加熱時間較長及溫度變化較大,經常影響產品之外觀、色澤及口感。此研究將設計高效能蒸籠的蒸氣孔徑為0.5 cm、蒸氣出口為3個與傳統蒸籠以固定熱源加熱,探討蒸籠內的溫度、加熱時間及糊化溫度的變化,再以高效能及傳統蒸籠製作饅頭,探討加熱過程饅頭的還原糖、糊化度、褐變度、色澤分析、質地剖面分析及感官評估之變化。經實驗結果得知,在蒸籠方面,高效能蒸籠加熱到100 ℃及饅頭糊化溫度80 ℃所需時間為10 min及12 min,比傳統蒸籠的14 min及14 min花費時間較少。在饅頭品質方面,高效能及傳統蒸籠之還原糖分別為58.24 ± 1.34 %及54.52 ± 1.74 %;糊化度分別為64.46 %及57.03 %;褐變度分別為0.15 ± 0.02及0.19 ± 0.01;色澤分析L值及b值分別為67.26 ± 0.11, 16.09 ± 0.10及63.41 ± 0.92, 18.21 ± 0.20;質地剖面分析的咀嚼度則為6.59 ± 0.32及5.01 ± 0.41;感官評估的整體評估得分為5.53 ± 0.64及4.06 ± 0.74。根據結果可知,高效能蒸籠可提高蒸籠內部蒸氣溫度及有效縮短蒸製饅頭的時間,在饅頭品質上有較高的還原糖含量及糊化度,並有助於減少褐變度及增加色澤之白度,在質地剖面分析具有較好的咀嚼度且感官評估之整體評估得分也較高。
Traditional steamer use vapor heat to cook production of Chinese style flour in Taiwan. The production includes steamed bread, steamed buns and rice cake. The production quality was affected on vapor temperature and heating time. Now traditional steamer was belong to larger aperture of vapor. It easy caused low vapor temperature, long heating time and unstable temperature that usually effected appearance, color and texture of production. This study used high-performance steamer that have three hole of vapor and aperture of vapor was 0.5 cm. We compared both high-performance and traditional steamer to study temperature of steamer, heating time and gelatinization temperature of steamed bread. Finally using high-performance and traditional steamer make steamed bread to study reducing sugar, gelatinization degree, browning, hunter Lab, TPA and sensory assessment. The results showed that the high-performance was heating to 100 ℃ and steamed bread gelatinization degree 80 ℃ need to spend 10 min and 12 min less than traditional steamer spend 14 min and 14 min. In steamed bread quality parts, reducing sugar of high-performance and traditional steamer were 58.24 ± 1.34 % and 54.52 ± 1.74 %; gelatinization degree were 64.46 % and 57.03 %; browning degree were 0.15 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.01; L value and b value of hunter Lab were 67.26 ± 0.11, 16.09 ± 0.10 and 63.41 ± 0.92, 18.21 ± 0.20; chewiness of TPA were 6.59 ± 0.32 and 5.01 ± 0.41; overall acceptance of sensory assessment were 5.53 ± 0.64 and 4.06 ± 0.74, respectively. According to this study know that high-performance steamer could increase steam temperature of steamer and efficacious decrease time of steaming steamed bread. In steamed bread quality parts, it had higher reducing sugar and gelatinization degree. It also could help to increase L value and decrease browning of steamed bread. In TPA part, it had good chewiness and overall acceptance of sensory assessment had higher score.
目 錄
摘要...................................................................................................................I
Abstract...........................................................................................................III
謝誌..................................................................................................................V
目錄.................................................................................................................VI
圖表目錄..........................................................................................................X
第一章 前言...................................................................................................1
第二章 文獻回顧...........................................................................................2
2.1 蒸籠之介紹............................................................................................2
2.1.1 蒸籠的材質與蒸氣出口形式.........................................................3
2.2.2 竹製蒸籠之優缺點.........................................................................3
2.2.3 金屬蒸籠之優缺點.........................................................................4
2.2 飽和蒸氣之介紹....................................................................................6
2.2.1 飽和蒸氣的形成.............................................................................6
2.2.2 飽和蒸汽的氣化熱.........................................................................6
2.2.3 飽和蒸汽在食品的應用.................................................................9
2.3 饅頭的介紹..........................................................................................10
2.3.1 饅頭組成及影響因子...................................................................10
2.3.2 影響饅頭品質之原料...................................................................11
2.3.2.1 麵粉........................................................................................11
2.3.2.2 水............................................................................................11
2.3.2.3 酵母........................................................................................11
2.3.2.4 糖............................................................................................12
2.3.2.5 鹽............................................................................................12
2.3.2.6 油脂........................................................................................12
2.3.3 影響饅頭品質之製作流程...........................................................15
2.3.3.1 攪拌........................................................................................15
2.3.3.2 壓延........................................................................................15
2.3.3.3 發酵........................................................................................15
2.3.3.4 蒸製........................................................................................15
2.3.4 饅頭品質之判斷標準...................................................................19
2.4 非酵素性褐變反應..............................................................................21
2.5 質地剖面分析......................................................................................24
第三章 材料與方法.....................................................................................27
3.1 實驗設計..............................................................................................27
3.2 高效能蒸籠設計..................................................................................27
3.3 實驗原料..............................................................................................31
3.4 實驗試藥..............................................................................................31
3.5 實驗儀器..............................................................................................31
3.6 饅頭製備..............................................................................................32
3.7 實驗方法..............................................................................................32
3.7.1 蒸籠的加熱時間及溫度之測定...................................................32
3.7.2 饅頭的糊化溫度及加熱時間之測定...........................................33
3.7.3 還原糖之測定...............................................................................33
3.7.4 總糖之測定...................................................................................34
3.7.5 糊化程度之測定...........................................................................34
3.7.6 褐變度之測定...............................................................................35
3.7.7 色澤之測定...................................................................................35
3.7.8 質地剖面分析...............................................................................35
3.7.9 感官評估.......................................................................................36
3.8 統計分析..............................................................................................36
第四章 結果與討論.....................................................................................37
4.1 高效能蒸籠各層的加熱時間及溫度變化..........................................37
4.2 傳統蒸籠各層的加熱時間及溫度變化..............................................37
4.3 高效能及傳統蒸籠的最終蒸氣溫度..................................................40
4.4高效能蒸籠及傳統蒸籠之比較...........................................................40
4.5 高效能及傳統蒸籠對饅頭的糊化溫度及加熱時間之影響..............43
4.6 高效能及傳統蒸籠對饅頭的糊化程度之影響..................................45
4.7 高效能及傳統蒸籠對饅頭的還原糖含量之影響..............................48
4.8 饅頭的糊化程度與還原糖含量之相關性..........................................51
4.9 高效能及傳統蒸籠對饅頭的褐變度之影響......................................54
4.10 高效能及傳統蒸籠對饅頭的色澤之影響........................................56
4.11 高效能及傳統蒸籠對饅頭的質地剖面分析之影響........................59
4.12 高效能及傳統蒸籠對饅頭的感官評估之影響................................61
第五章 結論.................................................................................................63
參考文獻.........................................................................................................65
作者簡介.........................................................................................................71

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