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研究生:林宣妤
研究生(外文):Hsuan-Yu Lin
論文名稱:飼糧中添加混合有機酸及碳酸氫鈉對豬隻生理及生長表現之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of supplementation organic acids and sodium bicarbonate on physiological traits and growth performance in pigs
指導教授:夏良宙夏良宙引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liang-Chou Hsia
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:動物科學與畜產系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:檸檬酸有機酸碳酸氫鈉pH值
外文關鍵詞:citric acidorganic acidsodium bicarbonatepH value
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本試驗旨在探討飼糧中添加混合有機酸及碳酸氫鈉對豬隻生理及生長之影響。試驗一採用LYD三品種雜交之肥育閹公豬30頭,依體重逢機分配至3處理組(對照組、添加0.4%有機酸及1%碳酸氫鈉),每處理2重複,每重複5頭豬。採任食任飲,試驗為期6週。試驗期間每日記錄豬隻攝食量、每週秤其體重及量測直腸和血液pH值。試驗結束後將豬隻犧牲,量測屠體、腸胃道及血液pH值。試驗二採用LYD三品種雜交之母豬及女豬分別15及30頭,依體重逢機分配至3處理組(對照組、添加0.4%有機酸及1%碳酸氫鈉),每處理母豬5頭及女豬10頭,每重複1頭豬。配種前採任食任飲,配種後給予限食、水任飲,試驗為期24週。試驗期間每日記錄豬隻攝食量、發情期間每兩個小時量測直腸溫度及陰道pH值、每週秤其體重、量測背脂、直腸溫度及陰道pH值並在試驗前、中及後期量測血液、尿液及糞便pH值,母豬分娩後每日記錄攝食量、每週秤其體重、血液及乳汁pH值、乳成分、免疫球蛋白含量,並記錄仔豬體重和下痢次數。試驗三採用LYD三品種雜交之生長女豬20頭,依體重逢機分配至4處理組(對照組、1%檸檬酸、2%檸檬酸及3%檸檬酸),每處理5重複,每重複一頭豬,採限食任飲,為期四週(包含三週適應期及一週總糞尿收集期),試驗期間每日紀錄豬隻攝食量及糞尿pH值、每週測量陰道及直腸pH值兩次,在糞尿收集期時,每天6:00、12:00、18:00及00:00收集糞便、尿液並分別秤其重量,試驗結束後計算其收集糞尿期的總攝食量和總糞尿重,再計算總糞尿收集期所攝取飼料之消化率及代謝率。試驗一結果顯示,在體增重方面,碳酸氫鈉組有較對照組及有機酸組佳之趨勢(P>0.05)。直腸pH值部分,有機酸組在第一週達顯著降低(P<0.05)。在腸道pH值方面,有機酸組較其他兩處理組高,且在十二指腸及空腸前段達顯著差異(P<0.05);膀胱排空尿液前後pH值,以碳酸氫鈉顯著最高,有機酸組顯著最低(P<0.05)。試驗二結果顯示,在第一次發情時直腸溫度及陰道pH值,碳酸氫鈉組顯著最高,有機酸組顯著最低(P<0.05)。尿液pH值方面,添加碳酸氫鈉組顯著最高(P<0.001)。分娩後,母豬失重及胎盤pH值,有機酸組有較低之趨勢(P>0.05)。乳成分中礦物質含量,有機酸組銅和鋅的含量顯著最高(P<0.05);胺基酸含量,以有機酸組在天門冬胺酸(aspartate)、麩胺酸(glutamate)、絲胺酸(serine)、甘胺酸(glycine)、羥丁胺酸(threonine)、苯丙胺酸(phenylalanine)、白胺酸(leu)、離胺酸(lysine)顯著較高(P<0.05),碳酸氫鈉處理組有較對照組佳之趨勢,但未達顯著差異;而脂肪酸含量方面,有機酸或碳酸氫鈉組有較高之趨勢(P>0.05)。有機酸組之母豬,其仔豬下痢次數顯著最低(P<0.001)。試驗三結果顯示當檸檬酸濃度添加至3%時糞便pH值顯著最高,並隨著檸檬酸濃度下降至1%時達到最低;而尿液pH值則是在添加1%時達到顯著最高,但添加至2%時顯著最低。陰道及直腸pH值方面,添加檸檬酸都有較低之趨勢,但無顯著改善。綜合上述,添加有機酸可以降低豬隻直腸、陰道、膀胱及尿液之pH值,可減少感染的機會,仔豬之下痢次數也會減少;添加碳酸氫鈉可以減少熱緊迫對豬隻的影響,但會使陰道、膀胱及尿液之pH值上升,添加檸檬酸可增加部份礦物質的吸收利用。
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary blend organic acids and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on the physiology and growth performance of pigs. In trial 1, thirty LYD cross breed finishing castrate boar were randomly allocated into 3 arrangements (control, 0.4% organic acid and 1% sodium bicarbonate) according to respective body weight with 2 replications each treatment and 5 pigs per replication. ad libitum feeding and drinking water, the duration of the trial was 6 weeks. For data collection, daily feed intake, body weight, rectal pH value and blood pH value were measured weekly. All the pigs were slaughtered in the end of the trial for measuring carcass, gastrointestinal and blood pH value. In trial 2, 15 and 20 LYD cross breed sows and gilts, respectively, were randomly allocated into 3 arrangements (control, 0.4% organic acid and 1% sodium bicarbonate) according to respective body weight with 15 (sow and gilt were 5 and 10 respectively) replications each treatment and 1 pigs per replication. Before mating, ad libitum feeding and drinking water; after mating, restrict feeding and ad libitum water, the duration of the trial was 24 weeks. For data collection, daily feed intake, rectal temperature, vagina pH value, body weight and back fat were measured weekly, and in addition, rectal temperature and vagina pH value were measured per two hours while heat duration, and blood, fecal and urine pH value were measured in the prophase, medium phase and the late stage. After farrowing, record daily feed intake, body weight, blood and milk pH value, milk composition, immunoglobulin content; and record weight gains and diarrhea times of piglet. In trial 3, 20 LYD cross breed growing pigs, were randomly allocated into 4 arrangements (control, 1%, 2%, and 3% Citric acid) according to respective body weight with 5 replications each treatment and 1 pigs per replication. Restrict feeding and ad libitum water drinking, the duration of the trial was 4 weeks (include 3 weeks adaptation phase and 1 week total excreta collect phase), and for data collection, daily feed intake and excreta pH value, measure vagina and rectal pH value twice per week; in excreta collect phase, collect at 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 and weigh, calculate the digestive and metabolic rate of feed intake in collect phase. The results of trial 1 shows that, the sodium bicarbonate group tended to have better weight gain (P>0.05) than the other two groups. About the rectal pH value, the organic acid group has significantly decrease (P<0.05) in the first week. About the gastrointestinal tract pH value, the organic acid group is higher than the other two groups, and has significantly difference (P<0.05) in the duodenum and the front jejunum; the pH value before and after removing urine, the sodium bicarbonate group is significantly the highest and the organic acid group is the lowest (P<0.05). The results of trial 2 shows that, in first heat phase, about the rectal temperature and the vaginal pH value, the sodium bicarbonate group is significantly the highest and the organic acid group is the lowest (P<0.05). About the urine pH value, the sodium bicarbonate group is significantly the highest (P<0.001). After farrowing, about the weightlessness of sows and the placenta pH value, the organic acid group has lower trend (P>0.05). About the mineral content in milk, content of copper and zinc is significantly the highest (P<0.05); In amino acids concentrations, aspartate, glutamate, serine, glycine, threonine, phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine are significantly higher (P<0.05), and the sodium bicarbonate group has higher trend(P>0.05); about the fatty acids content, the organic acid and the sodium bicarbonate groups have higher trend (P>0.05). The piglets which were born by the sows of the organic acid group have significantly decreasing of diarrhea. The results of trial 3 shows that, when citric acid supplementation to 3% the feces pH significant highest, and significant lowest when supplementation 1% citric acid; supplementation 1% citric acid the urine pH significant highest, lowest on 2% supplementation. In vagina and rectal pH, have lower trend but no significant when citric acid supplementation. In conclusion, organic acids supplementation can reduce rectal, vagina, bladder and urine pH value. Maybe can reduce the chance of infection, the diarrhea times of piglet also reduce; but when sodium bicarbonate supplementation can reduce the effects of high temperature on pigs, the vagina, bladder and urine pH value were increase; when citric acid supplementation can increase part of mineral absorb and utilization.
摘要 I
Abstract III
謝誌 VI
圖表目錄 1
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻探討 2
一、酸鹼平衡 2
(一)酸鹼平衡之機制 2
(二)電解質平衡 3
二、有機酸 4
(一)有機酸及其生理特性、吸收和代謝 4
(二)有機酸對生理之影響 10
(三)有機酸對微生物之影響 14
三、碳酸氫鈉 15
(一)碳酸氫鈉及其他緩衝鹽類特性及代謝 15
(二)碳酸氫鈉對生理之影響 17
四、影響豬乳成份之因素 18
(一)豬乳乳成分 18
(二)環境的因素 19
參、材料方法 21
試驗一:飼糧中添加混合有機酸及碳酸氫鈉對肥育肉豬生長性能與腸胃道pH值之影響 21
(一)試驗動物 21
(二)試驗場地 22
(三)試驗設計 23
(四)試驗流程 24
(五)飼養流程 24
(六)樣本採集與分析 24
(七)統計分析 27
試驗二:飼糧中添加混合有機酸及碳酸氫鈉對母豬繁殖性能之影響 28
(一)試驗動物 28
(二)試驗場地 28
(三)試驗設計 29
(四)試驗流程 32
(五)飼養流程 32
(六)樣本採集與分析 32
(七)統計分析 38
試驗三:飼糧中添加不同濃度檸檬酸對生長女豬生長代謝及消化率之影響 41
(一)試驗動物 41
(二)試驗場地 42
(三)試驗設計 43
(四)試驗流程 46
(五)飼養流程 46
(六)保存液配製 46
(七)導尿管安裝過程 46
(八)樣本採集與分析 49
(九)統計分析 52
肆、結果與討論 53
試驗一:飼糧中添加混合有機酸及碳酸氫鈉對肥育肉豬生長性能與腸胃道pH值之影響 53
試驗二:飼糧中添加混合有機酸及碳酸氫鈉對母豬繁殖性能之影響 69
試驗三:飼糧中添加不同濃度檸檬酸對生長豬消化及代謝率之影響 94
伍、結論 101
參考文獻 102
作者簡介 111

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