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研究生:黃祈雯
研究生(外文):Chi-Wen Huang
論文名稱:半寄生性印度檀香苗木不同栽培方式之生長與吸盤解剖之構造
論文名稱(外文):The Seedling Growth and Haustoria Anatomic Structure of Santalum album L. under Variable Potting Conditions
指導教授:張焜標 博士
指導教授(外文):Dr. Kun-Piao Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:森林系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:印度檀香根半寄生寄主吸盤
外文關鍵詞:Santalum albumroot hemi-parasitismhosthaustoria
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本研究主要目的為針對3種盆栽栽植方式及11種植物(10種寄主及1種半寄生樹種)進行試驗,以探討促進根半寄生印度檀香(Santalum album L.)植株生長具較佳效應之樹種及栽植方式。試驗1選擇禾本科百喜草(Paspalum notatum FlÜggé)、被子植物葛塔德木(Guettarda speciosa L.)、樹豆(Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth.)及相思樹(Acacia confusa Merr.)等4種做為寄主植物。結果一年顯示禾本科百喜草在前6個月能提高印度檀香初期的成活力及苗高生長,因此可供選擇做為初期配植的潛力植物,但後期則以相思樹較具促進印度檀香生長的潛力。試驗2 選擇山柚仔(Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr.)、繖楊(Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Corrêa)、葛塔德木及毛苦參(Sophora tomentosa L.)等樹種做為中間寄主,並以加植百喜草與否以驗證試驗1的結論是否正確。試驗一年結果顯示,加植百喜草與否未影響檀香成活力,但配植樹種的選擇以繖楊及毛苦參對檀香則有明顯的促進效力。試驗3以香水樹(Cananga odorta (Lam.) Hook. f. &; Thomson)、過山香(Clausena excavate Burm.)、月橘(Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack)及墨水樹(Haematoxylum campechianum L.)等4樹種做為寄主植物,配植印度檀香。本試驗主要驗證修剪寄主植物控制高度,是否影響印度檀香的生長。試驗結果顯示,試驗8個月後,不論寄主是否修剪均以過山香及月橘對促進印度檀香的生長具有顯著的效果。綜合以上結果本試驗認為是否加植百喜草處理或寄主高度控制處理,均顯示對印度檀香生長沒有顯著的效果,僅與寄主物種呈極顯著關係。主要寄主的選擇可選用過山香或月橘,約5個月的生長期即能發揮效益,長期寄主建議選擇適合的固氮樹種如相思樹等,以提供更多氮素使其完成生活史。吸盤成功與寄主根系連接後,藉由穿入釘侵入寄主根系組織,穿入釘兩旁形成橢圓體圓盤緊靠寄主中柱藉以吸收寄主營養。本研究認為寄主與印度檀香根系纏繞的緊密度與印度檀香苗木生長彼此有相互影響。
The purpose of this study was to use 3 different potting conditions and 11 plant species (10 different host species and 1 hemi-parasitic species) to test which plant species was the best for growth enhancement of the root hemi-parasitic Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.) and planting performance. In experiment 1, Paspalum notatum FlÜggé, Guettarda speciosa L., Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth, and Acacia confusa Merr. were selected as the host species. The results after one year revealed that S. album had highest rate of survival and seedling height during the first six months when paired with P. notatum. However, for the long-term, A. confusa was a better host plant for S. album. In experiment 2, four species, Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr. (hemi-parasitic plant), Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Corrêa, G. speciosa L. and Sophora tomentosa L., were selected as host species. In this test, grass plant P. notatum was added with the plants to test if grass increases the survival of S. album. After one year the results revealed that there is no significant difference between pots with and without grass. However, the potting with T. populnea and S. tomentosa exhibited greater S. album seedling growth than the other species. In experiment 3, four species, Cananga odorta (Lam.) Hook. f. &; Thomson, Clausena excavate Burm., Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and Haematoxylum campechianum L., were selected as host species. The aim of this test was to understand the influence of host on the species height on S. album seedling’s growth. The results after 8 months revealed that the height of host species did not influence the growth of S. album. However, growth of S. album was significantly influenced by the host species. Among them, C. excavate and M. paniculata caused greater growth of S. album. In general, this study considered the addition of grass P. notatum and host height control but both resulted in no influence on the growth of S. album. The only significant variable was the host plants. Native species C. excavate or M. paniculata could be selected as the major host of S. album. The first 5 months benefit parasitic Indian sandalwood, while the long-term host should be a suitable nitrogen-fixing plant such as A. confusa, for the provision of more nitrogen nutrition to complete S. album’s life cycle. When haustoria successfully connect with the host roots, penetration peg could penetrate the host root tissues and formed a thin ellipsoidal disc closed to the host stele for absorbing host nutrition. This study suggests that the closely degree of S. album roots twining with host were greatly influence the growth of S. album seedlings.
目錄
摘要 I
Abstract III
謝誌 V
目錄 VII
圖目錄 XI
表目錄 XIII
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻回顧 3
一、印度檀香之栽培狀況 3
(一)國外人工林栽培狀況 3
(二)國內人工林栽培狀況 3
二、檀香樹之性狀 4
(一)開花期及傳播方式 4
(二)種實處理 4
(三)萌芽更新能力 5
三、環境因子 5
(一)氣候 5
(二)土壤 6
(三)害蟲及疾病 6
四、寄主物種 6
五、生長 7
(一)不同栽植法對印度檀香生長之情形 7
(二)容器類型和大小對印度檀香苗木之生長 7
(三)盆栽寄主引入印度檀香野外建立時間之影響 8
(四)固氮寄主與非固氮寄主對檀香樹生長之增進 8
六、礦質元素對植物體之影響 10
七、寄主物種、印度檀香苗齡及添加營養肥料三者間對印度檀香
生長之相互關係 12
八、半寄生植物獲取寄主資源的機制 12
九、吸盤形態及解剖構造 13
參、材料與方法 16
一、研究區概況 16
二、材料來源及育苗 16
三、試驗設計 18
四、苗圃管理 22
肆、結果 24
一、印度檀香種子之發芽率試驗 24
二、生長調查分析 28
(一)試驗1生長分析 29
(二)試驗2生長分析 36
(三)試驗3生長之分析 48
四、印度檀香與寄主植物之生長外觀及吸盤數量調查 60
(一)草本及木本寄主對印度檀香生長及其根系吸盤之觀察 60
(二)禾草處理對印度檀香生長外觀及吸盤數量調查 63
(三)修剪寄主苗高對印度檀香生長外觀及吸盤數量調查 66
五、印度檀香與寄主植物之吸盤外觀及內部解剖觀察 78
伍、討論 83
一、印度檀香種子發育試驗及苗木培育 83
二、印度檀香種植方式試驗 83
(一)試驗1 83
(二)試驗2 85
(三)試驗3 85
(四)栽種方式之探討與建議 87
三、印度檀香葉部礦質營養含量 87
四、寄主有效性對印度檀香苗木生長狀況之探討 89
五、寄主有效性對吸盤形成之影響 89
六、印度檀香吸盤之形態與解剖之構造 90
陸、結論 92
參考文獻 94
作者簡介 100

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