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研究生:林方翔
研究生(外文):Fang-Hsiang Lin
論文名稱:森林殘留物生物炭之特性及其對水中重金屬銅、鋅吸附之效益
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of Forestry Residues Biochar and Their Effects of on the Adsorption of Heavy Metals Cu and Zn in Water
指導教授:張焜標張焜標引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kun-Piao Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:森林系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:生物炭森林殘留物重金屬吸附
外文關鍵詞:biocharforestry residuesheavy metalsadsorption
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生物炭是一種由生物質在完全或部分缺氧的情況下經熱裂解產生的固態物質,可做為一種高效能的吸附劑,應用於重金屬污染的處理。本研究為將欖仁(Terminalia catappa L.)、苦楝(Melia azedarach L.)、大葉桃花心木(Swietenia macrophylla King)、楓香(Liquidambar formosana Hance)、銀合歡(Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth.)、樟樹(Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl.)、皮孫木(Pisonia umbellifera (Forst.) Seem.)、玉蘭花(Magnolia denudata Desr.)、光臘樹(Fraxinus formosana Hayata) 、印度紫檀(Pterocarpus indicus Willd.)及相思樹(Acacia confusa Merr.)等11個樹種之森林殘留物及稻殼(rice husk)分別依300~800℃不同溫度級別進行炭化後分析。
結果顯示各樹種在酸鹼值(pH)、電導度(EC)、礦質元素與微量元素的含量皆呈現隨炭化溫度上升而增加趨勢。紅外線光譜儀(FTIR)分析結果顯示所有樹種所製生物炭皆含有C=C官能基,其中皮孫木、玉蘭花及相思樹含有官能基種類較少,欖仁、楓香及銀合歡含有的官能基種類較多。掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)觀察結果發現炭化溫度增加了生物炭表面的微孔,在700℃的炭化溫度下又以苦楝、大葉桃花心木及銀合歡生物炭最為明顯。
將三種溫度300、500及700℃等三種溫度之生物炭進行重金屬銅及鋅之吸附試驗發現,在銅離子的吸附試驗中以500與700℃的皮孫木、楓香與印度紫檀生物炭效果最佳;在鋅離子的吸附試驗則以500℃皮孫木生物炭為最好,而楓香與印度紫檀對重金屬銅、鋅的吸附也具有顯著效果。其他各樹種在500與700℃的炭化溫度下對重金屬的吸附量皆良好但又以500℃較佳。若未來要使用生物炭來吸附重金屬銅及鋅可考慮使用皮孫木、楓香及印度紫檀為原料,炭化溫度採用500℃即可對重金屬吸附達到良好效果。

關鍵字: 生物炭、森林殘留物、重金屬、吸附

Biochar is a solid in which biomass came out from pyrolysis under completely or partially absent of oxygen. Biochar could be a high efficacy adsorbent and applicat in pollutant treatment of heavy metals. This study had used forestry residues of Terminalia catappa L., Melia azedarach L., Swietenia macrophylla King, Liquidambar formosana Hance, Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl., Pisonia umbellifera (Forst.) Seem., Magnolia denudata Desr., Fraxinus formosana Hayata (Pterocarpus indicus Willd., Acacia confusa Merr. and rice husk to produce biochar and used 300 ~ 800℃ different temperature to analysis after produce biochars.
The results showed that the pH, electrical conductivity(EC), mineral elements and trace elements are increased as the pyrolysis temperature is elevated. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the biochar of all species contain functional group of aromatic C (C=C) Species of T. catappa, L. formosana and L. glauca. had more types of functional groups than P.umbellifera, M.denudata and A.confusa. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that an increase of pyrolysis temperature would increase pores on the surface of biochar. The pores on the biochar of M. azedarach, S. macrophylla, and L. glauca. at 700℃ showed the most obvious.
In the adsorption experiment of heavy mental Cu and Zn by 300, 500, and 700℃, it was found that biochar of P. umbellifera by 500℃ exhibit the best in Zn adsorption. And biochars of L. formosana and P. indicus with 500 and 700℃ also showed the highest efficiency of Cu adsorption. The rest of other tree species with 500℃ and 700℃ biochar had showed good adsorption of heavy metals, but the biochar of 500℃ was better then 700℃. In the future if biochar were used to absorb heavy metals of Cu and Zn, it may consider to use the species of P. umbellifera, L. formosana and P. indicus. for raw material. And the pyrolysis temperature in 500℃ would be commended to achieve good results for the adsorption of heavy metal.

Key words: biochar, forestry residues, heavy metals, adsorption

目錄
摘要 I
Abstact III
謝誌 V
目錄 VI
圖表目錄 VIII
壹、前言 1
貳、前人研究 3
一、生物炭之起源與定義 3
二、生物炭之元素組成 6
三、重金屬對環境與植物之影響 8
四、重金屬之修復整治技術 12
五、界面吸附現象 13
六、生物炭之應用 16
參、材料方法 21
一、生物炭之備製 21
二、生物炭之基本特性測定分析與觀察 21
三、重金屬Cu、Zn吸附試驗試驗設計 23
四、資料統計分析 24
肆、結果與討論 25
一、生物炭之基本特性 25
二、生物炭之官能基鑑定 34
三、生物炭電子顯微鏡觀察 39
四、生物炭對重金屬銅鋅之吸附 46
伍、結論 55
參考文獻 56
附錄 67
作者簡介 78

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