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研究生:蔡光美
研究生(外文):Kuang Mei Tsai
論文名稱:洋桔梗水耕栽培技術之開發
論文名稱(外文):Development of a hydroponic technique for Eustoma grandiflorum
指導教授:何韻詩
指導教授(外文):Yunn-Shy Ho
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:農園生產系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:227
中文關鍵詞:水耕洋桔梗移植方法酸鹼度
外文關鍵詞:hydroponicsEustomatransplantingaciditiesmanganese
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洋桔梗(Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shnn.)為龍膽科的宿根性草花,台灣長期設施內栽種及肥料鹽份累積而造成土壤連作障礙,更因為根瘤線蟲病害的發生而嚴重影響產量。因此本研究以循環式水耕栽培系統在不同進行不同品種及生育之測試及建立栽培和養液管理技術:實驗一試驗移植幼苗的方法,及噴施50 ppm GA和暗期中斷處理以提升切花品質。夏季栽培的移植方法分為清洗幼苗的介質用海綿包覆根團(BRS)與不清洗(PLG)兩種,BRS處理對‘Melody Double Pink Flash’品種的生長均無顯著差異;BRS對‘Bolero Blue Flash’的株高及莖徑顯著比PLG高2.3 cm及0.021 cm;BRS對‘Rosina Snow’的莖徑則顯著較PLG處理粗。GA處理均會增加‘Melody Double Pink Flash’、‘Bolero Blue Flash’及‘Rosina Snow’的株高及花苞數,而GA處理則會縮短‘Bolero Blue Flash’的到花日數2.2天。在瓶插壽命試驗中, ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’和‘Bolero Blue Flash’的瓶插壽命帶根處理比對照組增加了6.8~7.3天。秋季栽培的移植方法分為BRS處理與直接將帶介質的根團包覆海綿(MDS)兩種,MDS處理 ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’品種的株高、莖徑、根長、葉片數及節數;對‘Arena III Green’品種的株高、根長、葉片數與節數;對於‘King of Snow’的株高及莖徑均顯著較BRS多,能促進植株的生長勢。秋季栽培的GA處理中對‘Melody Double Pink Flash’和‘King of Snow’品種的總重、地上部鮮重及乾重顯著較高,但對‘Arena III Green’的生長均無顯著的影響。暗期中斷試驗則均可增加三個品種的株高,但也會提升葉斑分布的葉片數及節數。
實驗二比較三種養液酸鹼度(6.3One、6.8One、7.3One)和三種錳濃度(6.8One、6.8Tri、6.8Qui),並種植於不同的容器對於洋桔梗生育之影響;在冬季栽培試驗中,山形溫室內以溝槽式栽培的酸鹼度處理結果,‘Melody Double Pink Flash’品種於7.3One處理中無法正常抽苔,簇生化機率達100%,所以其生長勢明顯低於6.3One和6.8One處理。‘Melody Double Pink Flash’和‘Arena III Green’生長後期6.3One處理的地上部、地下部鮮重及乾重均顯著最高,且葉斑葉片數和節數的分布較少;但‘Arena III Green’品種的葉斑葉片數則較其他處理高。6.3One處理以保麗龍床栽培的‘Melody Double Pink Flash’品種因真菌性萎凋病而無法比較,但‘Arena III Green’品種則與溝槽式栽培的結果相同,地上部及地下部的鮮重及乾重以6.3One處理顯著較重。山形溫室內以溝槽式栽培的錳濃度處理結果,‘Melody Double Pink Flash’品種以6.8Tri和6.8Qui處理的生長勢較好,其株高、莖徑、地上部鮮重及乾重均較6.8One處理高;‘Arena III Green’的地上部鮮重和地下部鮮重也以6.8Tri和6.8Qui處理較高,其餘則無顯著的差異。在葉片元素分析中,兩個品種的鉀和鈉離子均以有葉斑的葉片中含量較高,氮離子則在無葉斑的含量較高。而養液內的鐵和錳則會隨著栽培時間而減少,而氮和磷則會隨著栽培時間而增加。
實驗二的秋季栽培重複養液的酸鹼度試驗中,定植於山形溫室內溝槽式栽培的‘Melody Double Pink Flash’則以7.3One處理的葉斑分布(12.6片和5.6節)較其他處理低。而拱形溫室中,‘Melody Double Pink Flash’品種以保麗龍床栽培6.8One處理的到花日數(67.1天)較其他處理長,而葉斑平均等級(0.58)則顯著較低;溝槽栽培‘Melody Double Pink Flash’的6.3One處理莖徑、總鮮重及分枝數顯著較多,與冬季栽培的結果相同。‘Arena III Green’以溝槽式栽培的7.3One處理中分枝數(8.4)和花苞數(11.2)較多,而且在葉斑分布表現上也較其他處理輕微。在山形溫室內錳濃度的試驗中,‘Melody Double Pink Flash’的6.8Qui處理明顯較低葉斑葉片數、節數、等級累加平均和葉片比例(12、5.5、1.24、0.51),其生長勢與其他處理無顯著差異。錳濃度對於‘Arena III Green’的生長沒有顯著的影響,但在葉斑的表現上則以6.8Qui的葉斑分布的節數較高。而葉片元素分析的鐵、銅、錳和鋅元素中,均以保麗龍床栽培的含量較溝槽式多,兩品種的結果一致。而溝槽式栽培與保麗龍床栽培內養液之元素則會隨著栽培時間氮、鈣和鐵的含量均會下降。
在不同的環境及容器中,養液酸鹼度和錳濃度均無一致的結果,品種與處理間均反應不一致。綜合以上結果,水耕栽培可生產出具有商業品質切花的洋桔梗,MDS為有效率的移植幼苗的方式,保麗龍床較適合作為生產栽培,而在進行養液處理時需先針對栽培品種作測試。

Eustoma (Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shnn.) is a perennial flowering plant in Gentianaceae family. In Taiwan, the continuously cultivation in the greenhouses and the salt accumulation in the soil from fertilizer residue had created the monocropping obstacles. The occurrence of diseases and root-knot nematode also seriously impacted the yield. This research applied the circulating hydroponic systems, in different seasons, to test the growth of different Eustoma cultivars and to establish a prototype cultivating and nutrient solution management technique. In the first experiment, the effects of young plant transplant methods, GA spray, and dark break light treatments combinations were studied. In the summer trial, the two seedling transplanting methods tested were: removing substrate and wrapping the bare root in sponge (BRS), the other method setting the plant plug in a cell tube (PLG). The methods showed no significant difference on ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’. BRS treated ‘Bolero Blue Flash’ plants, the height was 2.3 cm and stem diameter was 0.021 cm which showed signficanfly more than PLG. BRS treated ‘Rosina Snow’ had significant larger stem diameter. GA treatment raised the height and flower bud number of the 3 cultivars. It reduced the day to flower for 2.2 days in ‘Bolero Blue Flash’. In vase life test, keeping the roots could prolong 6.8-7.3 more days than removing the roots. In the fall season culture, BRS method was compared to wrapping the root with medium in the sponge (MDS). MDS resulted in more plant height, stem diameter, root length, leaf and node number than BRS on ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’. This treatment had similar effects on the other two cultivars and showed better plant growth. The fall culture of GA treatment got heavier total weight, shoot fresh and dry weight than NGA in ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’ and ‘King of Snow’ plants, but no significant difference in ‘Arena III Green’. Dark break treatment raised the height in those three cultivars, but it also increased the leaf spot occurrence.
In the second part of the research, the acidities (6.3One, 6.8One, 7.3One) and manganese concentrations (6.8One、6.8Tri、6.8Qui) in the nutrient solution, and types of containers on the growth of 2 Eustoma cultivars were compared. In the winter trial, the plants from the trough system in the gable greenhouse with acidity 7.3One treated ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’ plants 100% turned into rosette form. Both 6.3One treated ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’ and ‘Arena III Green’ plants had heavier shoot and root fresh and dry weight, also had less leaves and nodes showed leaf spot than 6.8One treatment. However, 6.3One treated ‘Arena III Green’ plants had more leaves showed leaf spots than 6.8One. In the Styrofoam bed trial, 6.3One treated ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’ plants were infected with fusarium disease. But in which, ‘Arena III Green’ plants were not infected and had same results as in the trough culture: the fresh and dry weight of shoot and root were significant heavier in 6.3One than the other 2 treatments. The manganese concentration treatments of 6.8Tri and 6.8Qui on ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’ plants had larger height, stem diameter, shoot fresh weight and dry weight than 6.8One. On ‘Arena III Green’ plants they also had more fresh weight from shoot and roots. The elements analyzed in the leaves: the K and Na contents were higher in the spotted leaves, and N content was higher in the normal leaves in both cultivars. In the nutrient solution, the concentrations of Fe and Mn were decreasing, while those of N and P were increasing along with the plant growth.
The fall culture of the second experiment repeated the treatments showed that in the gable greenhouse, the 7.3One treated ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’ plants had least leaf spots (12.6 leaves and 5.6 nodes). In the arch greenhouse, ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’ grown in the Styrofoam bed with 6.8One solution took longest day to flower (67.1 day), and had significantly lowest leaf spot grade (0.58). In the trough system, ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’ grown in the 6.3One solution had largest stem diameter, total fresh weight and branch, these results were the same as the previous winter culture. In the trough system, ‘Arena III Green’ plants grown in 7.3One treatment had most branch (8.4) and flower bud number (11.2), and showed the least leaf spots. In the gable greenhouse, ‘Melody Double Pink Flash’ under 6.8Qui treatment had significantly less leaf spot distributed leaf number, node, grade and leaf rate (12 leaves, 5.5 nodes, 1.24, and 0.51), results while on growth characters showed no significant difference. Different manganese concentrations didn’t showed affect on the growth of ‘Arena III Green’ plants, but leaf spots distributed to higher nodes. The leaf Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn contents of both cultivars were higher in plants grown in the Styrofoam beds than trough. In both systems, N, Ca and Fe contents in nutrient solutions decreased along with plant growth.
In conclusion, the hydroponics system set up was proved to be able to produce marketable Eustoma cut flowers with longer keeping life. MDS was a efficient transplanting method to plug seedlings. Plants grew better in Styrofoam beds. Nutrient treatments had no consistent results on plant growth, trials have to be conducted on difference cultivars.

目錄
中文摘要 I
Abstract IV
誌謝 VII
目錄 IX
圖目錄 XII
表目錄 XXII
壹、前言 1
貳、前人研究 3
一、植株性狀及產業概況 9
二、環境因素對於洋桔梗栽培之影響 4
(一) 溫度 4
(二) 光 5
(三) 植物生長調節劑的運用 7
三、 養液的管理 7
(一) 溶氧量 8
(二) 根溫 9
(三) 電導度(Electrical Conductivity, EC) 9
(四) 酸鹼值(pH) 10
四、營養元素對於植物生理之影響 11
(一) 氮 11
(二) 鈣 12
(三) 鎂 13
(四) 鐵 14
(五) 鋅 15
(六) 錳 16
參、材料與方法 18
實驗一、水耕栽培和生長調節方法 18
(一)夏季栽培:移植方式及GA處理對於水耕洋桔梗生長之影響 18
(二)秋季栽培:移植方式、GA及暗期中斷對於水耕洋桔梗生長之影響 23
實驗二、養液酸鹼度和錳濃度 26
(一)冬季栽培:養液酸鹼度及錳濃度對於‘Melody Double Pink Flash’和‘Arena III Green’的生育之影響 26
(二)秋季栽培:養液酸鹼度及錳濃度對於‘Melody Double Pink Flash’和‘Arena III Green’的生育之影響 30
肆、結果與討論 34
1.實驗一、水耕栽培和生長調節方法 34
1.1.夏季試驗 34
1.2.秋季試驗 37
1.3.綜合夏、秋兩季試驗的結果 40
1.3.1.移植方式 40
1.3.2.GA處理 40
1.3.3.暗期中斷處理 41
2.實驗二、養液酸鹼度和錳濃度 42
2.1.養液酸鹼度對於‘ Melody Double Pink Flash’生育及元素含量之影響 44
2.1.1.冬季試驗 44
2.1.1.1.生長及發育 44
2.1.1.2.葉片及養液內元素變化 48
2.1.2.秋季試驗 49
2.1.2.1.生長及發育 49
2.1.2.2.葉片及養液內元素變化 51
2.2.養液酸鹼度對於‘Arena III Green’生育及元素含量之影響 53
2.2.1.冬季試驗 53
2.2.1.1.生長與發育 53
2.2.1.2.葉片及養液內元素變化 56
2.2.2.秋季試驗 57
2.2.2.1.生長與發育 57
2.2.2.2.葉片及養液內元素變化 59
2.3.綜合冬、秋兩季試驗的結果 61
2.4.1.冬季試驗 68
2.4.1.1.生長與發育 68
2.4.1.2.葉片及養液內元素變化 69
2.4.2.秋季試驗 71
2.4.2.1.生長與發育 71
2.4.2.2.葉片及養液內元素變化 73
2.5.養液錳濃度對於‘Arena III Green’生育及元素含量之影響 75
2.5.1.冬季試驗 75
2.5.1.1生長與發育 75
2.5.1.2.葉片及養液元素之變化(冬季栽培) 76
2.5.2.秋季試驗 77
2.5.2.1.生長與發育 77
2.5.2.2.葉片及養液內元素變化 78
2.6.綜合冬、秋兩季試驗的結果 79
伍、結論 83
陸、參考文獻 74
柒、附錄 80

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