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研究生:陳詠舜
研究生(外文):Yung-Shun Chen
論文名稱:發電機使用添加丙酮及異丙醇於廢食用油生質柴油排氣PM與PM上碳成分排放特性
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of PM and particle-bound carbons emitted from a diesel engine generator fueled by waste-edible-oil-biodiesel with acetone and isopropyl alcohol addition
指導教授:陳瑞仁陳瑞仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shui-Jen Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:酯化廢食用油丙酮異丙醇混合生質柴油柴油引擎
外文關鍵詞:waste-edible-oil-biodieselacetoneisopropyl alcoholBiodieselholDiesel generator
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近年來原油蘊藏量日漸枯竭導致國際原油價格不斷飆升,因此各國紛紛投入替代能源之研發,其中以生質柴油最被廣泛討論與研究。因此,本研究以1~3 %之丙酮(Acetone,簡稱A)、1 %異丙醇(Isopropyl alcohol,簡稱P)分別混合1、3、5、10及20 %酯化廢食用油(Waste-edible-oil-biodiesel,簡稱W)於純石化柴油(76~97 %)之混合生質柴油(Biodieselhol),以探討發電機使用純石化柴油、廢食用油生質柴油添加1~3%純丙酮及1%異丙醇(於0 kW及3 kW下)或使用廢食用油生質柴油添加1~3%含水丙酮及1%異丙醇(於3 kW下)之混合生質柴油(biodieselhol)時PM及PM上OC與EC之排放特性。研究結果顯示:與D100相較,無論有無負載,發電機使用20%以下摻配比之廢食用油生質柴油時均可降低排氣PM及PM上OC濃度,且OC濃度會隨廢食用油生質柴油添加比提高而降低;而PM上EC濃度則隨廢食用油生質柴油添加比例提高而增加。與W1D99、W3D97、W5D95、W10D90及W20D80相較,無論有無負載,發電機無論使用添加丙酮(1~3%)及異丙醇(1%)或添加含水丙酮(1~3%)及異丙醇(1%)於廢食用油生質柴油之混合生質柴油時,其排氣PM上OC濃度大致上均有進一步減量,且PM上OC濃度隨混合生質柴油丙酮或含水丙酮添加比例提高均可再進一步削減。在3 kW負載下,生質柴油摻配比未超過5%時,發電機使用添加1~3%含水丙酮之混合生質柴油均比用純丙酮時可進一步降低其排氣PM濃度。與W1D99、W3D97、W5D95、W10D90及W20D80相較,混合生質柴油純丙酮或含水丙酮添加比在3%時,發電機PM上OC之排放分別可再進一步削減20.7~40.4%(平均32.1%)及11.3~38.9%(平均25.5%);使用添加1~3%含水丙酮之混合生質柴油時,其排氣PM上EC排放較W1D99、W3D97及W5D95時少,而與W10D90及W20D80時相較則幾乎無差別。本研究結果顯示添加含水丙酮、異丙醇及廢食用油生質柴油之混合生質柴油除可做為石化柴油之替代燃料外,發電機使用此混合生質柴油時亦可降低其排氣PM及PM上OC排放,此未來將有利於含水丙酮廢溶劑之回收與再利用。
Many countries have devoted to the research and development of alternative energies because of the decrease of crude oil reserves and the increase in oil price. Bio-diesel is one of alternative energies that have been extensively discussed and studied. This research investigates the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) and particulate carbon emitted from a generator fueled by waste-edible-oil-biodiesel with acetone and isopropyl alcohol addition. The tested biodieselhols were made of pure diesel oil (D100) mixed with 1−3 vol. % pure acetone (denoted as A)/water-containig acetone(denoted as WA), 1−70 vol. % waste-edible-oil-biodiesel (denoted as W), and 1 vol. % pure isopropyl alcohol (the stabilizer, denoted as P). The generator output was set to 110 V/60 Hz. The results show that the use of using waste-edible-oil-biodiesel (less than 20%) in place of D100 as the generator fuel reduced the concentrations of emitted PM and PM-OC, despite loading condition. The OC concentration decreased as the percentage of waste-edible-oil-biodiesel increased, while the PM-EC concentration increased when the percentage of waste-edible-oil-biodiesel increased. Compared with W1D99, W3D97, W5D95, W10D90, and W20D80 which contained added acetone (1−3%) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA, 1%) or water-containing-acetone (1−3%) and IPA (1%) in waste-edible-oil-biodiesel (biodieselhols) as the generator fuel further reduced the PM-OC emission concentration, despite loading operation; moreover, such reduction increased with the the increase of percentage of acetone or water-containing-acetone. At 3-kW load and biodiesel &;lt;5%, using 1−3% water-containing-acetone biodieselhols lower PM emission, in compassion to using pure acetone biodieselhols. Compared with W1D99, W3D97, W5D95, W10D90, and W20D80, pure acetone or water-containing-acetone biodieselhols could reduce PM-OC emission by 20.7−40.4% (average 32.1%) or 11.3−38.9% (average 25.5%), respectively. The PM-EC emission was lower for using 1−3% water-containing-acetone biodieselhols than for using W1D99, W3D97, and W5D95, except for using W10D90 and W20D80. The results showed that the blended biodieselhols which contained water-containing-acetone, IPA, and waste-edible-oil-biodiesel may serve as an alternative fuel of fossil diesel to reduce the PM and PM-OC emission from generators, and to improve the recycling and reuse of water-containing-acetone solvents.
摘要 I
Abstract III
謝誌 V
目錄 VI
第1章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 1
1.3 研究內容 3
第2章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 能源概況 4
2.2 生質柴油 6
2.2.1 生質柴油發展與各國現況 6
2.2.2 生質柴油之原料 8
2.2.3 生質柴油製程 10
2.2.4 生質柴油之特性 11
2.2.5 柴油引擎使用生質柴油對污染物排放之相關研究 14





2.3 廢棄有機溶劑 17
2.4 柴油引擎 20
2.4.1 柴油引擎簡介 20
2.4.2 柴油引擎之工作原理 20
2.4.3 柴油引擎污染物研究 22
2.4.4 柴油引擎排放DPM特性 25
2.4.5 柴油引擎碳成分排放特性 30
2.4.6 柴油引擎排放PAHs特性 32
2.5 多環芳香烴化合物 33
2.5.1 PAHs物化特性 33
2.5.2 PAHs來源 38
2.5.3 PAHs生成機制 39
2.5.4 PAHs致癌性及致突變性 40
第3章 研究方法 44
3.1 採樣規劃 44
3.2研究設備 45
3.2.1 柴油引擎及發電機規格 45
3.2.2 煙道採樣系統 47
3.2.3 玻璃套筒(Glass Cartridge) 48
3.2.4 實驗油品 49
3.3 採樣前處理 50
3.4 樣品中各組成成分分析 51
3.4.1 微粒質量濃度分析 51
3.4.2 碳成分分析 51
3.5 採樣方法之品保與品管 53
3.5.1 儀器之校正 53
3.5.2 分析方法之品保與品管 53
第4章 結果與討論 55
4.1 不同廢食用油生質柴油摻配比時發電機PM排放特性 55
4.2 混合生質柴油(添加丙酮、異丙醇及廢食用油生質柴油)對發電機排放PM之影響 58
4.3 混合生質柴油對發電機排放PM上碳成分之影響 65
第5章 結論與建議 75
5.1 結論 75
5.2 建議 76
參考文獻 77
附錄 91
作者簡介 92

圖目錄
圖2-1 生質柴油的技術原理 10
圖2-2 生質柴油反應過程 11
圖2-3 典型柴油引擎排氣中粒狀物之結構(Kittelson, 1998a) 26
圖2-4 U.S.Transient Cycle行車型態測試法測試重型柴油引擎
排氣中粒狀物組成(Kittelson, 1998a)。 26
圖3-1 實驗流程圖 45
圖3-2 柴油引擎發電機示意圖 46
圖3-3 柴油引擎發電機採樣示意圖 47
圖3-4 玻璃套筒填充方式 48
圖3-5 TOC-5000A及SSM示意圖 52
圖4-1 各廢食用油生質柴油摻配比時發電機於無負載下排氣PM
濃度 56
圖4-2 各廢食用油生質柴油摻配比時發電機於3 kW負載下排氣
PM 濃度 56
圖4-3 發電機使用各混合生質柴油於無負載下排氣PM濃度 59
圖4-4 發電機使用各混合生質柴油於3 kW負載下排氣PM濃度 59
圖4-5 發電機使用各混合生質柴油於無負載下排氣PM上碳濃度
1111 66
圖4-6 發電機使用各混合生質柴油於3 kW負載下排氣PM上碳
濃度 66
附圖1 碳成分之檢量線 88
附圖2 碳成分之檢量線 88

表目錄
表2-1 台灣能源供需展望 5
表2-2 世界各國生質柴油發展現況及未來目標 9
表2-3 生質柴油污染物排放減量效益 13
表2-4 國外使用生質柴油其排氣污染物之先關研究文獻 111 16
表2-5 丙酮及異丙醇物化特性 19
表2-6 21種PAHs之分子量、結構式及化學式 34
表2-6 21種PAHs之分子量、結構式及化學式(續) 35
表2-6 21種PAHs之分子量、結構式及化學式(續) 36
表2-7 21種PAHs之物化特性及其親電性 37
表2-8 21種PAHs 之毒理特性 42
表2-9 21種PAHs毒性當量轉換因子(TEFs) 43
表3-1 柴油引擎及發電機規格表 46
表3-2 實驗油品及有機溶劑之基本性質 49
表3-3 柴油引擎機油成分分析表 50
表4-1 各廢食用油生質柴油摻配比時發電機排氣PM濃度 11 57
表4-2 發電機使用各混合生質柴油時排氣PM濃度 11 60

表4-3 發電機使用混合生質柴油於無負載下排氣PM上碳濃度與 一含量 67
表4-4 發電機使用混合生質柴油於3 kW負載下排氣PM上碳濃一度 68
表4-5 發電機使用混合生質柴油於3 kW負載下排氣PM上碳含一量 69

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