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研究生:陳佑燊
論文名稱:鄰苯二甲酸酯類於二仁溪及東港溪中的流布情形
論文名稱(外文):Distribution of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in the Erjen and Tungkang River
指導教授:邱瑞宇黃益助
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:鄰苯二甲酸酯類 ˉ底泥固相萃取總有機碳
外文關鍵詞:phthalate esterssedimentsolid phase extractiontotal organic carbon
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本研究於2012年11月至2013至4月,於台南市二仁溪及屏東縣東港溪,分別進行兩次採樣。利用固相萃取法(solid phase extraction, SPE)及吹氮濃縮進行樣品前處理,再以氣相層析儀搭配質譜儀(GC-MS),進行8種鄰苯二甲酸酯類(phthalate esters, PAEs)分析,包含鄰苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯(Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, DEHP)、鄰苯二甲酸二丁酯(Dibutyl phthalate, DBP)、鄰苯二甲酸丁基苯甲酯(Butyl benzyl phthalate, BBP)、鄰苯二甲酸二異壬酯(Di-isononyl phthalate, DINP)、鄰苯二甲酸二異癸酯(Di-isodecyl phthalate, DIDP)、鄰苯二甲酸二辛酯(Di-n-octyl phthalate, DNOP)、鄰苯二甲酸二異丁酯(Diisobutyl phthalate, DIBP)、鄰苯二甲酸二己酯(Di-n-hexyl phthalate, DNHP)。本研究主要探討鄰苯二甲酸酯類於東港溪及二仁溪中之流布情形,並瞭解log Koc與底泥中有機碳(foc)及PAEs濃度之相關性。
結果顯示,2013年1月份和4月份東港溪水體中PAEs之平均濃度分別為1.41和1.52 µg L-1。底泥中之PAEs濃度,2013年1月份以泥埤圳測站7.62 µg g-1為最高,2013年4月份以鳳鳴排水測站17.33 µg g-1為最高。二仁溪底泥中PAEs濃度,2012年11月以函口圳測站2.96 µg g-1為最高,2013年4月份以南雄橋測站33.3 µg g-1為最高,推測2013年4月份PAEs濃度高於2012年11月份之原因可能和二仁溪之枯豐水期(枯水期12月~4月、豐水期5月~11月)有關,2013年4月為二仁溪枯水期,較無充沛水量導致淤泥沉積於河床。二仁溪月世界測站水體中之DEHP及三爺溪測站水體中之DIBP,與其他測站差異較大,可能與月世界測站周遭有畜牧業和三爺溪沿岸地表面金屬處理業之排放有關。2013年1月於新庄排水和泥埤圳排水測站,以及2013年4月於二仁溪之月世界、港尾溝溪、函口圳、南萣橋測站與東港溪壠東橋、新庄排水、鳳鳴排水、興社大橋及港東二號橋測站,其底泥PAEs濃度介於底泥品質指標下限值(1.97 µg g-1)與上限值(19.7 µg g-1)之間,依據底泥品質指標建議應增加檢測頻率,避免造成長久污染而危害生物圈。
底泥中PAEs與foc相關性比較顯示,只有東港溪底泥中DEHP與foc呈正相關性(r = 0.670),其餘河川及PAEs較無顯著相關性或呈負相關性,推測可能與本研究所採取之底泥樣品為河床表層底泥,有機碳含量較少導致檢出率與濃度皆較低有關。

From November 2012 to April 2013, two surveys of water quality and sediment were implemented at the Erjen River in Tainan and the Tungkang River in Pingtung, Taiwan. Solid phase extraction (SPE) method and sample concentration with a stream of nitrogen gas were utilized as pretreatment and then analyzed by a gas chromatography equipped with an mass spectrophotometer (GC/MS) to quantify the concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) including Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP), Di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), Di-n-hexyl phthalate (DNHP). The objective of this study is to investigate the distribution of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in the Erjen and Tungkang River, and to understand the correlations among log Koc, and fraction organic carbon (foc) and PAEs concentration within the sediments.
The results showed that the average PAEs concentrations in water of the Tungkang River were 1.52 and 1.41 µg L-1 in April 2013 and in January 2013, respectively. PAEs in sediments of the Tungkang River were 7.62 µg L-1 at Ni-pi-tzuen station and 17.33 µg L-1 at Feng-ming station that was the highest in January and April 2013, respectively. PAEs in sediments of the Erjen River were 2.96 µg L-1 at Han-kou-tzuen station and 33.3 µg L-1 at Nan-hsiung station that was the highest in November 2012 and April 2013, respectively. The reasons for PAEs in water in April 2013 higher than those in November 2012 might be due to the dry season of the Erjen River that caused the deposition of sediment on the bottom of riverbed. Concentrations of DEHP and DIBP in water at respective Yue-shr-jie and San-ya-shi station of the Erjen River were significantly different from those at other stations. The reasons might be due to the wastewater discharges from livestock farms and metal surface processing plants around Yue-shr-jie and San-ya-shi station, respectively. The PAEs in sediment ranged between the low and high limit of the sediment quality index at Shin-juang drainage and Ni-pi-tzuen drainage station along the Tungkang River in January 2013, and at Yue-shr-jie, Kang-wei-gou-chi, Han-kou-tzuen, Nan-ding bridge station along the Erjen River and at Lung-dung bridge, Shin-chuang drainage, Feng-ming drainage, Hsing-she bridge, Kang-tung-erh-hao bridge station along the Tungkang River in April 2013. According to the sediment quality index, more survey frequency is suggested to avoid long-term damages to the biosphere.
As shown from the correlation of PAEs concentrations and foc in sediment, only DEHP showed positive correlation (r= 0.67) with foc. The other stations or PAEs showed insignificant or opposite correlations, it was speculated that the sediment samples collected were from the surface of riverbed that possessed less organic carbon contents resulting in lower detection rates and concentration of PAEs.

摘要 I
Abstract III
謝誌 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 環境荷爾蒙 3
2.2 鄰苯二甲酸酯類(phthalate esters, PAEs) 4
2.2.1 基本性質 4
2.2.2 用途 6
2.2.3 生命週期 7
2.2.4 毒理特性 11
2.2.5 管制標準 11
2.3 關切河川流域 16
2.3.1 二仁溪 16
2.3.2 東港溪 19
第三章 材料與方法 22
3.1 實驗藥品和設備 22
3.1.1 實驗藥品 22
3.1.2 實驗設備 23
3.2 採樣地點 23
3.3 實驗器皿前處理 29
3.4 採樣方法 29
3.4.1 水體採樣及保存 29
3.4.2 底泥採樣及保存 29
3.5 基本水質分析 29
3.6 底泥特性分析 31
3.6.1 有機碳測定方法 31
3.6.2 水分含量測定 32
3.7 鄰苯二甲酸酯類萃取方法 33
3.7.1 水體中鄰苯二甲酸酯類萃取 33
3.7.2 底泥中鄰苯二甲酸酯類萃取 33
3.8 銅粉淨化 33
3.9 氣相層析質譜儀 34
3.10 品保及品管 38
3.10.1 檢量線建立及查核 38
3.10.2 方法空白樣品分析 41
3.10.3 重複分析 41
3.10.4 添加回收分析實驗 41
第四章 結果與討論 42
4.1 基本水質分析 42
4.2 PAEs基本性質分析 51
4.3 環境中PAEs 52
4.3.1 東港溪水體中PAEs 52
4.3.2 二仁溪水體中PAEs 56
4.3.3 東港溪底泥中PAEs 59
4.3.4 二仁溪底泥中PAEs 62
4.3.5文獻比較 65
4.4 相關性分析 68
4.4.1 水體及底泥中PAEs與底泥總有機碳(total organic carbon, TOC)之相關性 68
第五章 結論與建議 83
5.1 結論 83
5.2 建議 84
參考文獻 85
附錄 97
作者簡介 104

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