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研究生:李玉萍
研究生(外文):Sudarin Rodmanee
論文名稱:泰國安帕瓦水上市場食品安全規範擬定之研究
論文名稱(外文):Food Safety Standard for Amphawa Floating Market, Thailand
指導教授:黃文琪黃文琪引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang Wen-Chi
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業暨國際合作系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
論文頁數:221
中文關鍵詞:食品安全標準效益與成本分析水上攤販安帕瓦水上市場
外文關鍵詞:food safetystandardbenefit cost analysisfloating food vendorsAmphawa Floating Market
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安帕瓦水上市場吸引國內外遊客,然而近年來大批遊客的湧入,對當地造成公共衛生方面的問題,如腹瀉病就是個例證。因此,我們亟需瞭解水上攤販的食品安全狀況。本研究目的1. 以結構性問卷和觀察清單進行調查及現場觀察,探討泰國安帕瓦水上市場中的六十一位水上攤販之食品安全知識、態度、及實際做法。 2. 建立水上攤販的食品安全標準,並提出食品安全方面的改善建議。3. 關於水上攤販適用之食品安全實用標準的建立以及食品安全改善措施的制定,本研究邀請五位食品安全專家透過小組討論方式,最終提出相關建議和共識。同時針對該食品安全實用標準的各分節進行危害分析和重要管制點分析;結果發現僅有少數攤販曾接受食品衛生的相關培訓,水上攤販的食品安全和衛生知識相當有限,同時觀察到攤販的做法不衛生及其衛生條件不佳,他們的態度也嚴重的危害食品安全。本研究的結果亦顯示在許多食品安全議題上,知識與實際做法間存有差距。作者首先制定水上攤販食品安全的初步大綱。然後由五位食品安全專家擬定適用水上攤販的食品安全實用標準、潛在危害識別、重要管制點分析、以及食品安全改善措施。其中,水上攤販適用的食品安全實用標準包含以下九小節:第一節為引言-範圍,第二節為定義,第三節為一般要求,第四節為水上攤販,第五節為攤販用船及衛生設施,第六節為家電,第七節為食材準備,第八節為水和冰,第九節則為廚餘的處理和排放與病蟲害防治。專家們的意見一致相同。在某些活動中,由於專家、時間和預算的限制,當地政府機構無法運作。標準中的個別項目有所修改、增加、或刪除。專家們提出以下八項食品安全改善措施,包括:1) 遵照食品安全實用標準的各項要求;2) 為水上攤販提供食品安全與衛生培訓;3) 在營業日對水上攤販實行控管,並對水上攤販的食物進行抽樣檢查;4) 提供圍裙、髮網、和消毒液;5) 支持食品安全測試和分析;6) 介紹洗碗三步驟;7) 提供廚餘收集桶;以及8) 宣導食品安全改善措施。經濟分析的結果有助決策者理解食品安全改善措施的落實對預計成本與效益之基礎所造成的影響。同時,食品安全改善措施實行後,食源性疾病和醫藥費用會減少、低於施行成本,從而有助於經濟和社會福利。然而,因為大量缺乏相關數據,我們提醒讀者在解讀此部分研究時,將之視為教學練習,而非新的成本和效益估算值。上述所提出的食品安全實用標準和食品安全改善措施之實行所需依賴政府的支持,為有效提高安帕瓦水上市場浮動食品攤販的食品安全和衛生狀況,改善食品安全之重要的先決條件。
The Amphawa Floating Market is an attractive site for national and international visitors. As the tourist influx has been increasing for several years but this growth presents public health challenges, with evidence of diarrheal disease. Therefore, there are emerging needs for understanding the food safety status of the floating food vendors. The objectives of this study include 1) to assess the 61 food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of floating food vendors by using a questionnaire and an observation checklist. 2) To develop the food safety standard for the floating food vendors and recommend food safety improvement. 3) To estimate the economic analysis of the food safety improvement efforts by estimating the cost of illness as the benefits and quantifying the costs spending in the food safety improvement efforts under alternative scenarios. The study shows that the food safety and hygiene knowledge of floating food vendors was limited, and unhygienic practices and inadequate sanitary conditions were observed. Their attitudes also are a great risk to food safety. The results of this study also reveal a gap
between knowledge and practice on many food safety topics. The preliminary outline of food safety for floating food vendors was developed first by the researcher. Then, the proposed food safety standard for floating food vendors along with the potential hazard identification, the critical control point analysis, and options for food safety improvement efforts were created by the 5 food safety experts. The proposed food safety standard for floating food vendors consisted of 9 sections as follows: Section 1 Introduction-Scope, Section 2 Definitions, Section 3 General Requirement, Section 4 Floating Food Vendors, Section 5 Boat for Vending and Hygiene Facilities, Section 6 Appliances, Section 7 Food Preparation, Section 8 Water and Ice, and Section 9 Handling and Disposal of Waste and Pest Control. The opinions of experts were consistent. In some activities, the local government authorities could not be operated due to the limitations of experts, time, and the budget. Some items of the standard were modified, added or taken out. The experts also recommended the food safety improvement efforts including 1) following the proposed food safety standard items, 2) providing the food safety and hygiene training for floating food vendors, 3) monitoring floating food vendors in the operating day and inspecting of individual floating food vendors along with collecting food samples, 4) providing aprons, hair nets and disinfectant solution, 5) Supporting food safety testing and analysis, 6) Providing three steps in sinks, 7) Providing the waste containers and 8) Conducting advertisement of the food safety improvements. For the economic assessment, the benefits will outweigh the costs of the food safety improvement efforts for all scenarios considers and the food safety improvement will contribute to the economic and social welfare by reducing foodborne illness and medical costs in excess of the costs. However, due to considerable lack of data, the researcher cautions the reader to interpret this part of the study as a pedagogical exercise and not as a new estimate of costs and benefits. The implementation of the above proposed food safety standard combined the food safety improvements are important prerequisite for the effective in improving the food safety and hygiene status of floating food vendors in Amphawa Floating Market.

Chinese Abstract I
English Abstract III
Acknowledgements VI
Table of Contents VIII
List of Tables. XI
List of Figures XIV
Chapter 1
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 3
1.3 Purpose of the study 5
1.4 Scope of the study 5
1.5 Definition of the operational terms 6
1.6 Contribution of the study 7
Chapter 2
2. Literature Review 10
2.1 Behavioral theory 10
2.2 Food sanitation and food safety standards for food vendors in Thailand 17
2.3 Benefit and cost of food safety improvements 19
Chapter 3
3. Methodology 30
3.1 The study design 30
3.2 Selection of the study area and the experts 34
3.3 Population 41
3.4 Research instruments 41
3.5 Data collection 46
3.6 Data analysis 54
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion
4. Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of FloatingFood Vendors 56
4.1 Socio-demographic characteristics of floating food vendors 56
4.2 Food safety knowledge and practices of floating food vendors 58
4.3 Food safety attitudes of floating food vendors 74
4.4 The effect of personal profile on hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of floating food vendors 75
4.5 Conclusions 84

Chapter 5 Results and Discussion
5. The Proposed Food Safety Standard and Food Safety Improvement Efforts. 86
5.1 The proposed food safety standard 87
5.2 The setting for food safety improvement efforts 95
5.3 Conclusions 110
Chapter 6 Results and Discussion
6. Benefit Cost Valuation of the Food Safety Improvement Efforts 112
6.1 Benefits of the food safety improvement efforts 112
6.2 Costs of the food safety improvement efforts 130
6.3 Comparison of benefit and cost 142
6.4 Conclusions 146
Chapter 7
7. Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Research 148
8. References…. 152
Appendices…. 169
Biosketch of Author 223

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