(3.238.96.184) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/18 15:15
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:席克懷
研究生(外文):Samkele Sikhulile Tfwala
論文名稱:受熱帶暴雨影響的懸浮泥沙與河床質變化-以士文溪為例
論文名稱(外文):The Variation of Suspended Sediments and Riverbed Material due to Tropical Storms – A Case Study of Shi-Wen River
指導教授:王裕民王裕民引用關係顏才博
指導教授(外文):Yu-Min WangTsair-Bor Yen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業暨國際合作系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
中文關鍵詞:懸浮泥砂、輸砂量、暴雨、泥砂粒徑、河床質、士文溪
外文關鍵詞:suspended sedimentssediment dischargestormssediment sizeriverbed materialShi-Wen River
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:106
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:11
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
台灣位處於易致水災,區域內其降雨特性是集中於夏秋季節的颱風和暴雨。這些暴雨量大約佔全年雨量的三分之二至四分之三。因此,在河川中產生較大的流量,導致水流中懸浮質增加,而部分的懸浮細粒成為了組成河床質顆粒。因此,本研究的目的在於評估暴雨對於士文溪懸浮泥沙量與河床質的影響。本研究共觀察六場暴雨,每場暴雨均使用普萊斯流速儀及全水深含沙取樣器(DH-59)作為量測流速及含沙濃度的工具,(研究期間係介於2011年7月至2012年8月)而暴雨中資料的觀測頻率為每2小時進行觀測乙次。此外,研究中蒐集水利署自2011年元月至2012年10月之旬流量與含沙量作為含沙量率定曲線準確度比較分析之用。為評估河床質在雨季前後特性的變化,研究中完成了粒徑分布,粒徑幾何平均值,標準差,分佈型態及糙率。本研究河床質調查係採用體積法和表面法,在研究中共調查11處,其中體積法約6公里1處,而表面法則約距離3公里1處。經由本研究所觀測的流速與含沙濃度資料得知以暴雨資料建立之含沙量率定曲線的判定係數(R2)0.87較以旬資料所建立者(R2=0.26)為高。為評估驗證所建立之模式之可用性,研究中利用南瑪都颱風實測資料與模擬結果進行比較。結果發現,以六場暴雨建立之模式所得結果低估18%,而以旬資料所建立模式則低估73%。再者,吾人亦發現在流量與含沙粒徑上,當流量增加時D50與D20有漸低的現象。反之,D90則有漸增的趨勢。由河床質在雨季前後的變化研究上發現研究河段表層河床質粒徑(表面法)之幾何平均質變大而底層(體積法)則變小。河床質的幾何標準差在雨季後則變小,顯示河床質趨向較為均勻。而底層材料分佈因暴雨而由雙峰轉變為多峰分佈,表層材料的峰級則由礫石轉為大卵石。體積法幾何平均值的變小將導致粗糙係數的降低。經由本研究結果可知每年的暴雨改變了河川特性與河床型態。最後,以10年與2年重現期流量利用徐爾滋數與雷諾數關係圖研究,顯示河床形態分別變為逆砂丘與過渡河床。
Taiwan, because of her location is a flood prone region and is characterized by typhoons and torrential rains, which concentrates during summer-autumn season. These storms bring about two-thirds to three quarters of the annual rainfall amount. Consequently, greater flow strengths will result in rivers, which in turn will increase the amount of suspended sediments and will entrain some fraction of the grains that constitute the bed. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to assess the impacts of these storms on suspended sediments and riverbed material. Six storms occurred and were observed during the study period. In each of these storms, Price meter and depth-integrating sampler, model DH-59 are used to measure flow velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in Shi-Wen River, Southern Taiwan. These data were collected every two hours in the study period, July 2011 to August 2012. Sediment rating curves (SRC) were developed from the observed discharge and sediment discharge for each of the six storms and all
the data observed. In order to determine the accuracy of the developed SRC by using the storm events data, 10-day interval flow and suspended sediment data was also collected from the Taiwan Water Resources Agency for the period of January 2011 to October 2012. To assess the riverbed material, characteristics of riverbed are observed prior to and after the typhoon season of 2012. These included grain size distribution, geometric mean and standard deviation, bimodality and roughness coefficient. Volumetric and grid methods are employed to sample bed material. In total, 11 sites are observed , located at about 6 km and 3 km from each other for volumetric and grid method, respectively. The results evidenced that sampling during these storms is sufficient to generate SRC with higher confidence (R2 = 0.87) in estimating suspended sediment discharge compared to the 10-day interval SRC having R2 of 0.26. To evaluate the applicability of the developed models, discharge of typhoon Nanmadol was applied to estimate sediment discharge and comparing results to the observed sediment discharge from the same typhoon. The SRC developed from the six storms underestimated suspended load from typhoon Nanmadol by 18% compared to 73% from the 10-day interval. Further, in the relationship between suspended sediment size and discharge, there is a decreasing trend of suspended sediment size for D50, D20, and an increasing trend for D90 with increasing discharge. Although these variations are observed, the relationship is not significant reflecting that sediment size is supply controlled rather than a function of flow. The characteristics of riverbed changed markedly after these storms. A decrease and an increase in geometric mean size of grains in riverbed were observed for subsurface and surface bed material, respectively. Geometric standard deviation decreased in all sites after typhoons, indicating a shift to a more homogeneous bed material. Subsurface was found to be bimodal prior to typhoons and polymodal after. For surface material modal class was in the gravel class, while after typhoons it shifts towards cobble class. The reduction in geometric mean resulted to a decrease in roughness coefficient. The research concludes that storms alter the stream properties and can change the bed form in a short time. Finally, the relationship of Shields and Froude number are studied by applying 10-year and 2-year return period simulated flows and a change in the bed form to antidunes and transition form is observed, respectively.

Chinese Abstract II
English Abstract IV
Acknowledgements VII
Table of Contents VIII
List of Figures XI
List of Tables XIV
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Research Objectives 2
1.3 Outline of the Study 3
2. Literature Review 4
2.1 Sediment Transport Concepts 4
2.2 Methods of Measuring Sediments 6
2.2.1 Suspended Sediments 6
2.2.2 Suspended Sediment Discharge Measurement 9
2.2.3 Estimating Suspended Sediment Discharge 10
2.2.4 Riverbed Grain Size Distribution 16
2.2.5 Sampling Analysis Techniques 20
3. Analysis of Suspended Sediments and Flow in A Tropical Watershed 23
3.1 Introduction 23
3.2 Materials and Methods 24
3.2.1 Study Area 24
3.2.2 Monitoring Suspended Sediment Concentration 25
3.2.3 Suspended Particle Size Analysis 28
3.3 Results and Discussion 29
3.3.1 Behaviour of Suspended Sediments during the Torrential Events 29
3.3.2 Discharge and Suspended Sediment Discharge during the Torrential Events 34
3.3.3 Comparison of 10-days Interval and Torrential Rainfall Events SRC 38
3.3.4 Application of the Developed Models 40
3.3.5 Particle Size Analysis of the Suspended Sediment 41
3.4 Conclusion 46
4. The Variation of Riverbed Material during a Typhoon Season 48
4.1 Introduction 48
4.2 Materials and Methods 50
4.2.1 Study Area 50
4.2.2 Volumetric Sampling 52
4.2.3 Grid Sampling 54
4.3 Results and Discussion 54
4.3.1 Variation of Riverbed Material using Volumetric Method 54
4.3.2 Variation of Riverbed Material using Grid Method 56
4.3.3 Comparison of Volumetric and Grid Method 59
4.3.4 Modality of the Grain Size Distribution 60
4.3.5 Riverbed Material Transport and Bed Forms 62
4.3.6 Roughness Coefficient 69
4.4 Conclusion 70
5. General Conclusions and Recommendations 72
5.1 General Conclusions 72
5.2 Recommendations 73
References 74
Appendices 84
Biosketch 92



List of Figures
Figure 1. Selected depth-integrated samples (modified from Edwards and Glysson, 1999). 7
Figure 2. Typical sediment rating curve 13
Figure 3. The different layers in a riverbed. 17
Figure 4. Cumulative grain size distribution curve from Table 1. 22
Figure 5. A sketch of Shi-Wen River basin. 24
Figure 6. Sketch of mid-section method for computing cross-sectional area for discharge. 26
Figure 7. Flowchart of the study. 28
Figure 8. Suspended sediment variation in event 1. 31
Figure 9. Suspended sediment variation in event 2. 31
Figure 10. Suspended sediment variation in event 3. 32
Figure 11. Suspended sediment variation in event 4. 32
Figure 12. Suspended sediment variation in event 5. 33
Figure 13. Suspended sediment variation in event 6. 33
Figure 14. Flow and sediment discharge relationship during event 1. 35
Figure 15. Flow and sediment discharge relationship during event 2. 35
Figure 16. Flow and sediment discharge relationship during event 3. 36
Figure 17. Flow and sediment discharge relationship during event 4. 36
Figure 18. Flow and sediment discharge relationship during event 5. 37
Figure 19. Flow and sediment discharge relationship during event 6. 37
Figure 20. SRC from the 10-days interval and all the torrential rainfall events. 39
Figure 21. Comparison of the developed models. 41
Figure 22. Grain size distribution of suspended sediment in event 1. 42
Figure 23. Grain size distribution of suspended sediment in event 2. 43
Figure 24. Grain size distribution of suspended sediment in event 3. 43
Figure 25. Grain size distribution of suspended sediment in event 4. 44
Figure 26. Grain size distribution of suspended sediment in event 5. 44
Figure 27. Grain size distribution of suspended sediment in event 6. 45
Figure 28. Relationship between suspended sediment size and water discharge. 46
Figure 29. Sampling points distribution. 52
Figure 30. Illustration of volumetric sampling method. A) A sampling perimeter of one square meter. B) Vertical section of one meter. C) Use of hand sieving to separate subsurface particles. D) Particle greater than 256 mm (marked with circle) where a scale for conversion from diameter to weight was used. 53
Figure 31. Illustration of grid sampling method. 54
Figure 32. Grain size distribution before and after typhoon season using the volumetric method. 56
Figure 33. Proportions of clasts from volumetric method. 56
Figure 34. Grain size distribution before and after typhoon season using the grid method. 58
Figure 35. Proportions of clasts from grid method. 59
Figure 36. Histograms representing the grain size distributions for volumetric sampling (NB: D mm = 2-Ф) 62
Figure 37. Histograms representing the grain size distributions for grid sampling (NB: D mm = 2-Ф). 62
Figure 38. Shields diagram with data from all the sites using 10-year return period. (τb/γs-γ)D, in which, τb is bed shear stress, γs and "γ" are sediment and fluid densities, respectively, D is the grain size to be moved multiplied by acceleration due to gravity. The parameter (u*D/ν) represents the Reynolds number, in which, u* is the shear velocity and ν is the kinematic viscosity. 64
Figure 39. Shields diagram with data from all the sites using 2-year return period. (τb/γs-γ)D, in which, τb is bed shear stress, γs and "γ" are sediment and fluid densities, respectively, D is the grain size to be moved multiplied by acceleration due to gravity. The parameter (u*D/ν) represents the Reynolds number, in which, u* is the shear velocity and ν is the kinematic viscosity. 65
Figure 40. Shields number vs. Froude number for Shi-Wen River using 10-year return period. (τb/γs-γ)D, in which, τb is bed shear stress, γs and "γ" are sediment and fluid densities, respectively, D is the grain size to be moved multiplied by acceleration due to gravity. The parameter (U/√gh) represents the Froude number, in which, U is the flow velocity and g and h are the acceleration due to gravity and flow depth, respectively. 67
Figure 41. Shields number vs. Froude number for Shi-Wen River using 2-year return period. (τb/γs-γ)D, in which, τb is bed shear stress, γs and "γ" are sediment and fluid densities, respectively, D is the grain size to be moved multiplied by acceleration due to gravity. The parameter (U/√gh) represents the Froude number, in which, U is the flow velocity and g and h are the acceleration due to gravity and flow depth, respectively. 68



List of Tables
Table 1. Example of cumulative distribution from a grid by number sample 21
Table 2. Hydraulic characteristics of the six torrential events 30
Table 3. Observed and estimates of suspended load for Typhoon Nanmadol 41
Table 4. Statistical parameters of size distribution before and after typhoon season 60
Table 5. Manning’s roughness coefficient computed from empirical formulas 69

References
Altunkaynak, A. 2009. Sediment Load Prediction by Generic Algorithms. Advances in Engineering Software 40(9):928-934.
ASTM Standards D3977. 2007a. Standard Test Methods for Determining Sediment Concentration in Water Samples. Retrieved on October 30, 2011 from the World Wide Web. http://www.astm.org.
ASTM Standards D422. 2007b. Standard Test Methods for Particle Size Analysis. Retrieved on October 30, 2011 from the World Wide Web. http://www.astm.org.
Batalla, M., and M. Salla. 1994. Temporal Variability of Suspended Sediment Transport in a Mediterranean Sandy Gravel Bed River. In: Proceedings of the Canberra symposium December 1994, IAHS Publishers. 224.
Batalla, R. J., and A. Rovira. 2006. Temporal Distributions of Suspended Sediment Transport in a Mediterranean Basin: The Lower Tordera (Spain). Geomorphology 79:58-71.
Buffington, J. M. 1999. The Legend of A. F. Shields. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 125:376-387.
Bunte, K., and S. R. Abt. 2001. Sampling Surface and Subsurface Particle Size Distributions in Wadable Gravel and Cobble Bed Streams for Analysis in Sediment Transport, Hydraulics and Streambed Monitoring. USA Department of Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-74, pp.428.
Chang, F. J., and C. H. Chung. 2012. Estimation of Riverbed Grain-Size Distribution Using Image-Processing Techniques. Journal of Hydrology 441:102-112.

Chen, S. L., G. A. Zhang, S. L. Young, and J. Z. Shi. 2006. Temporal Variations of Fine Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Changjiang River Estuary and Adjacent Coastal Waters, China. Journal of Hydrology 331:137-145.
Chu, Y. T., and M. L. Hsu. 2007. The Relationship between Discharge and Suspended Sediment Concentration at Typhoon Events in Yu-Feng Catchment. Journal of Geographic Science 49:1-22.
Church, M. 2006. Bed Material Transport and the Morphology of Alluvial River Channels. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 34:325-354.
Church, M. A., D. G. McLean, and J. F. Wolcott. 1987. Riverbed Gravels: Sampling and Analysis. In: Sediment Transport in Gravel Bed Rivers, Thorne, C. R., J. C. Barthust, R. D. Hey (eds). Wiley: Chichester, 43-79.
Crawford, C. G. 1991. Estimation of Suspended Sediment Rating Curve and Mean Suspended Loads. Journal of Hydrology 129: 331-348.
Crowder, D. W., M. Demissie, and M. Markus. 2007. The Accuracy of Sediment Loads When Log-Transformation Produces Nonlinear Sediment Load Discharge Relationships. Journal of Hydrology 336:250-268.
Dadson, S. J. 2004. Erosion of an Active Mountain Belt. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earth System Science. University of Cambridge, UK.
Dadson, S. J., N. Hovius, H. Chen, W. B. Dade, M. L. Hsieh, S. D. Willett, J. C. Hu, M. J. Horng, M. C. Chen, C. P. Stark, D. Lague, and J. C. Lin. 2003. Links between Erosion, Runoff Variability and Seismicity in the Taiwan Orogen. Nature 426:648-651.
Demir, T. 2003. Downstream Changes in Bed Material Size and Shape Characteristics in Small Upland Stream: Cwn Treweryn, in South Wales. Bulletin of Earth Sciences Application and Research Centre of Hacettepe University, 28:33-47.
Demissie, M. 1996. Sediment Load during Flood Events for Illinois Streams. Water International 21:131-137.
Dey, S. 2011. Entrainment Threshold of Loose Boundary Streams. Earth and Planetary Sciences DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-17475-9-2.
Diplas, P., and J. P. Fripp. 1992. Properties of Various Sediment Sampling Procedures. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 118(7):955-970.
Dumitru, D., D. Condorachi, and M. Niculita. 2011. Downstream Variation in Particle Size: A Case Study of the Trotus River, Eastern Carpathians (Romania). Annals of the University of Oradea, Geography Series 21:222-232.
Duvert, C., N. Gratiot, O. Evrard, O. Navratil, J. Nemery, C. Prat, and M. Esteves. 2010. Drivers of Erosion and Suspended Sediment Transport in Three Headwater Catchment of the Mexican Central Highlands. Geomorphology 123:243-256.
Eder, A., P. Strauss, T. Krueger, and J. N. Quinton. 2010. Comparative Calculation of Suspended Loads with Respect to Hysteresis Effects (in the Petzenkirchen Catchment, Austria). Journal of Hydrology 389:168-176.
Edwards, T. K., and G. D. Glysson. 1999. Techniques of water resources investigations of the US-Geological survey: Chapter 2 Field Methods Measurement of Fluvial Sediment. Virginia, USA.
Einstein, H. A. 1950. The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open Channel Flows. USA Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Bulletin 1026.
Environmental Protection Administration (EPA). 2009. Typhoon Morakot. Retrieved on October 2, 2012 from the World Wide Web. http://www.epa.gov.tw.
Gao, P., and M. Josefson. 2012. Temporal Variations of Suspended Sediment Transport in Oneida Creek Watershed, Central New York. Journal of Hydrology 426:17-27.
Gao, P., X. M. Mu, F. Wang, and R. Li. 2011. Changes in Stream Flow and Sediment Discharge and the Response to Human Activities in the Middle Reaches of the Yellow River. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15:1-10.
Garcia, M. H. 2008. Sediment Engineering: Processes, Management, Modelling and Practice. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, USA.
Gellis, A. C. 2012. Factors Influencing Storm-Generated Suspended Sediment Concentrations and Loads in Four Basins of Contrasting Land Use, Humid Tropical Puerto Rico. Catena (in press).
Guy, H. P. 1964. An Analysis of Some Storm-Period Variables Affecting Stream Sediment Transport. In: Sediment Transport in Alluvial Channels, Geological Survey Paper 462-E, Washington, USA.
Hassanzadeh, H., S. Faiznia, S. Bajestan, A. Motamed. 2011. Estimate of Sediment Transport Rate at Karkheh River in Iran Using Selected Transport Formulas. World Applied Sciences Journal 13(2):376-384.
Hicks, D. M., and B. Gomez. 2003. Sediment Transport. In: Kondolf, G. M., and H. Piegey. Tools in Fluvial Geomorphology. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 425-462.
Hoey, T. B., and R. Ferguson. 1994. Numerical Simulation of Downstream Fining by Selective Transport in Gravel Bed Rivers: Model Development and Illustration. Water Resources Research 30(7):2251-2260.
Horowitz, A. J. 2003. An Evaluation of Sediment Rating Curve for Estimating Suspended Sediment Concentration for Subsequent Flux Calculations. Hydrologic Processes 17:3387-3409.
Julien, P. Y. 1995. Erosion and Sedimentation. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA.
Kao, S. J., and K. K. Liu. 2001 Estimating the Suspended Load by Using the Historical Hydrometric Record from the Lanyang-Hsi Watershed; Journal of Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 12:401-414.
Kao, S. J., S. C. Chan, C. H. Kuo, and K. K. Liu. 2005. Transport Dominated Sediment Loading in Taiwanese Rivers: A Case Study from the Ma-an Stream. Journal of Geology 113:217-225.
Kellerhals, R., and D. I. Bray. 1971. Sampling Procedures for Coarse Fluvial Sediments. Journal of the Hydraulics Division 103:1165-1180
Knighton, D. 1998. Fluvial Forms and Processes, a New Perspective. New York, Oxford University Press Inc., USA.
Lane, E. W., and B. J. Carlson. 1953. Some Factors Affecting the Stability of Canals Constructed in Coarse Granular Materials, Report 318, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado, USA.
Leahy, P. G., G. Kiely, and G. Corcoran. 2008. Structural Optimization and Input Selection of an Artificial Neural Network for River Level Prediction. Journal of Hydrology 355:192-201.
Lee, H. Y., Y. T. Lin, and Y. J. Chiu. 2006. Quantitative Estimation of Reservoir Sedimentation from Three Typhoon Events. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 4:362-370.
Malarz, R. 2005. Effects of Flood Abrasion on the Carpathian Gravels. Catena 64:1-26.
Mantz, P. A. 1977. Incipient Transport of Fine Grains and Flanks by Fluids-Extended Shields Diagram. Journal of Hydraulic Division 103:601-615.
Mao, L., and N. Surian. 2010. Observation on Sediment Mobility in a Large Gravel Bed River. Geomorphology 114(3):326-337.
Markus, M., and M. Demissie. 2006. Predictability of Annual Sediment Loads Based on Flood Events. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 11:354-361.
McBean, E. A., and S. Al-Nassri. 1988. Uncertainty in Suspended Sediments Transport Curves. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 114(1):63-74.
Meyer-Peter, E., and R. Muller. 1948. Formulas for Bed Load Transport. Proceedings of the 3rd Meeting of IAHR, 39-64. Stockholm: International Association for Hydraulic Research.
Milliman, J. D., and J. P. M. Syvitski. 1992. Geomorphic/Tectonic Control of Sediment Discharge to the Ocean: the Importance of Small Mountain Rivers. Journal of Geology 100:525-544.
Milliman, J. D., and S. J. Kao. 2005. Hypercpycnal Discharge of Fluvial Sediment Discharge to the Ocean: Impact of Super Typhoon Herb (1996) on Taiwanese Rivers. Journal of Geology 113(5):503-516.
Moliere, D. R., K. G. Evans, M. J. Saynor, and W. D. Erskine. 2004. Estimation of Suspended Sediment Loads in Seasonal Stream in the Wet-Dry Tropics, Australia. Hydrologic Processes 18:531-544.
Mosley, N. P., and D. S. Tindale. 1985. Sediment Variability and Bed Material Sampling in Gravel Bed Rivers. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 4:465-483.
Mueller, E. R., and J. Pitlick. 2005. Morphologically Based Model of Bed Load Transport Capacity in a Headwater Stream. Journal of Geophysical Research. 110: F02016. doi: 10.1029/2003JF000117.
Othman, K. I., and W. Deguan. 2004. Characteristics of Tigris Riverbed at Mosul City, Iraq. Journal of Lake Sciences 16:61-71.
Picouet, C., B. Hingray, and J. C. Olivry. 2001. Empirical and Conceptual Modelling of the Suspended Sediment Dynamics in a Large Tropical African River-the Upper Niger Basin. Journal of Hydrology 250:19-39.
Radoane, M., N. Radoane, D. Dumitriu, C. Miclaus. 2007. Downstream Variation in Bed Sediment Size Along the East Carpathian Rivers: Evidence of the Role of Sediment Sources. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms DOI: 10.1002/esp.
Rice, S. 1999. The Nature and Controls on Downstream Fining within Sedimentary Links. Journal of sedimentary Research 69(1):32-39.
Shields, A. F. 1936. Application of Similarity Principles and Turbulence Research to Bed-load Movement, Volume 26. Mitteilungen der Preussischen Versuchsanstalt fur Wasserbau und Schiffbau, Berlin, Germany, 5-24.
Sinnakaudan, S. K., M. S. Sulaiman, and S. H. Teoh. 2010. Total Bed Material Load Equation for High Gradient Rivers. Journal of Hydro-Environment Research 4:243-251.
Strickler, A. 1923. Contributions to the Questions of a Velocity Formula and Roughness Data for Streams, Channels and Closed Pipelines. Pasadena: W. M. Keck Lab of Hydraulics and Water Resources, California Institute of Technology.
Su, C. C., and J. Y. Lu. 2013. Measurement and Prediction of Typhoon Induced Short Term General Scours in Intermittent Rivers. Natural Hazards 66:671-687.
Teng, W. H., M. H. Hsu, C. H. Wu, and A. S. Chen. 2006. Impact of Flood Disasters on Taiwan in the Last Quarter Century. Natural Hazards 37:191-207.
Thomas, R. B. 1985. Estimating Total Suspended Sediment Yield with Probability Sampling. Water Resources Research 21:1381-1388.
Turowski, J. M., E. M. Yager, A. Badoux, D. Rickernmann, and P. Molnar. 2009. The Impact of Exceptional Events on Erosion, Bedload Transport and Channel Stability in a Step-Pool Channel. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34:1661-1673.
Ulaga, F. 2005. Concentration and Transport of Suspended Sediment in Slovene Rivers. Geoenvironment 52(1):131-135.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2000. The Quality of Our Nation’s Waters: A Summary of the National Water Quality Inventory; 1998 Report to Congress, Office of Water, Washington DC, USA.
Vanoni, V. A. 1975. Sediment Engineering. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, USA.
Vocadlo, J. J., and M. E. Charles. 1972. Prediction of Pressure Gradient for the Horizontal Turbulent Flow of Slurries. Proceedings of Hydrotransport 2:1-14.
Vongvixay, A., C. Grimaldi, P. Laguione, M. Faucheux, N. Gilliet, and M. Mayet. 2010. Analysis of Suspended Sediment Concentration and Discharge Relations to Identify Particle Origins in Small Agricultural Watersheds; In: Sediment Dynamics for a Changing Future, IAHS Publishers 337.
Walling, D. E. 1974. Suspended Sediment and Solute Yields from a Small Catchment prior to Urbanization. In: Gregory, K. J., and D. E. Walling. Fluvial Processes in Instrumented Watersheds. Institute of Geographic Special Publication 6:169-192.
Walling, D. E., 1977: Assessing the Accuracy of Suspended Sediment Rating Curves for a Small Basin. Water Resources Research 13:531-538.
Walling, D. E., and B. W. Webb. 1982. The Reliability of Suspended Sediment Load Data; In: Erosion and Sediment Transport Measurement, IAHS Publishers 133:177-194.
Walling, D. E., and D. Fang. 2003. Recent Trends in the Suspended Sediment Loads of the World Rivers. Global and Planetary Change 39:111-126.
Walling, D. E., P. N. Owens, B. D. Waterfall, G. J. L. Leeks, and P. D. Wass. 2000. The Particle Size Characteristics of Fluvial Suspended Sediment in the Humber and Tweed Catchments, UK. Science of the Total Environment 252:205-222.
Wang, Y. M., J. M. Leu, S. Traore, C. P. Yang, L. T. Deng, and T. H. Weng. 2010. Apprehending the Potential Effect of Sediment Deposition Due to Dredging in Laonong River Upstream, Southern Taiwan. International Journal of Physical Science 5(14):2135-2142.
Wang, Y. M., S. M. Chen, and I. Tsou. 2012. Using Artificial Neural Network Approach for Modelling Rainfall-Runoff. Journal of Earth System Science (in press).
Wang, Y. M., S. S. Tfwala, and Y. C. Lin. 2013. The Effects of Sporadic Torrential Rainfall Events on Suspended Sediments. Archives of Sciences 66(5):211-224.
Wang, Y. M., S. Traore, T. Kerh. 2008. Monitoring Event-Based Suspended Sediment Concentration by Artificial Neural Network Models. WSEAS Transactions on Computers 5(7):359-368.
Wang, Y. M., T. Kerh, and S. Traore. 2009. Neural Network Approach for Modelling River Suspended Sediment Concentration Due to Tropical Storms. Journal of Global Nest 11:457-466.
Wilcock, P. R. 1993. Critical Shear Stress of Natural Sediments. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering Division, American Society of Chemical Engineering 119(4):491-505.
Wischmeier, W. H. 1982. Storms and Soil Water Conservation. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 17:55-59.
Wolman, M. G. 1954. A Method of Sampling Coarse Riverbed Material. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 35:951-955.
Yalin, M. S., and E. Karahan. 1979. Inception of Sediment Transport. Journal of Hydraulic Division 105:1433-1443.
Yang, S. L., J. D. Milliman, P. Li, and K. Xu. 2011. 50000 Dams Later: Erosion of the Yangtze River and its Delta. Global and Planetary Change 75:14-20.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top