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研究生:范虹宜
研究生(外文):Pham, Hong Thi
論文名稱:肥培與灌溉方式對蝴蝶蘭生長及開花之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Fertilizers and Irrigation Methods on Vegetative Growth and Flower Production of Phalaenopsis Hybrid
指導教授:陳光堯陳光堯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dr. G. Stanley Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業暨國際合作系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:蝴蝶蘭水溶性肥料毛細管灌溉系統澆灌體積含水量生長開花
外文關鍵詞:Phalaenopsiswater-soluble fertilizersclosed capillary irrigationhand wateringvolumetric water contentvegetativeflower production
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供水與施肥在蝴蝶蘭栽培中扮演了相當重要的角色。本試驗選用432株蝴蝶蘭,種植於屏東縣內埔鄉一光照、溫度、與濕度均受控制的溫室中,調查肥料與供水方式對其生長與開花表現之影響。試驗過程中水苔含水量一直保持在40%至68%。結果顯示,以市售肥料 (Peters 20-20-20)與有機肥料配合使用 (B處理)可得到較多的葉 (4.7葉/株)與較重的地上部 (鮮重282.0克/株;乾重19.8克/株);亦可獲得較多的花梗與花朵數。單獨使用市售肥料搭配密閉式吸水系統 (A處理),則可得到較長的花序、較大的頭花與較早的花期。葉片組織分析結果顯示,鉀和硼在B處理中顯著較高,而鈣和鐵則在A處理中顯著較高。整體而言,在莖和根組織中礦質養分沒有顯著差異(除B處理中氮含量明顯較高外)。在花梗中所有大量營養元素(氮,磷,鉀,鈣,鎂等)均以B處理較高,惟鈣在實驗第70天例外;而鐵和硼濃度則無顯著差異。使用地下水混合逆滲透水進行灌溉,基質電導率顯著下降;最終的pH值則是略有下降 (或維持不變)。供水量方面,使用傳統方式澆灌216株蝴蝶蘭需要60至63公升,但是使用毛細管灌溉系統所需的水量只要18至20公升。
Combination of a proper irrigation system and fertilization has played an important role in reducing time and cost for commercial orchid growers in the mass production. Research was conducted to investigate the effects of water-soluble fertilizers and irrigation methods on vegetative growth and flower performance of Phalaenopsis hybrid in Neipu, Pingtung County, Taiwan. Growing condition in a commercial greenhouse was maintained at photosynthetic photo flux of 109 μmol∙m-2∙s-1, day/night time temperature of 24.5/17.8°C, and day/night time relative humidity of 57.4/73.2%. Four-hundred thirty two plants of pink-flower Phalaenopsis hybrid [P. Ho’s Valentine x P. New Cinderella] with leaf span of 40.0±5.1 cm were grown in pot size of 3.8 inch with 650 ml sphagnum moss by volume. Research was performed with two different treatments. Treatment A used only water-soluble fertilizer (Peters Professional Fertilizers 20:20:20, Scotts, Inc., USA) with closed capillary irrigation system. Treatment B used the combination of Peters Profesional Fertilizers solution and personal formula of organic fertilizer by hand watering. During the experiment, all plants substrate was maintained at 40-68% volumetric water content. The results showed that combination of Peters Professional Fertilizers and organic fertilizer was better growth with more leaves, and heavier shoots fresh and dry weight. In addition,
it also got better flowering performance with more total flower number (not only on main spikes but also on lateral spikes), and more main spike number per plant. However, applying 1g∙L 1 of Peters Professional Fertilizers with closed irrigation system resulted in earlier first flowering date, longer spike length, longer inflorescence length, and bigger diameter of first flowers. Potassium and boron were significantly higher in treatment B, whereas calcium and iron were dramatically higher in treatment A in leaf tissues. In general, there was no significant difference in mineral nutrient in stem and root tissues (except nitrogen in root tissues was significant higher in treatment B). All level of macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) in spike was higher in treatment B, except for calcium at 70 days of experiment. However, there was no significant difference in iron and boron concentration in spike tissues at 70 days of experiment. Moreover, using a blend water of 50% local ground water and 50% reverse osmosis water significantly reduced electrical conductivity (EC) value in growing substrate. The final pH value decreased slightly or remained unchanged during the experiment. Additionally, the volume of water supplied for two-hundred sixteen plants was around 60-63 litters by hand watering compared to 18-20 litters by using closed capillary irrigation system which was around 3 times higher in treatment B compared to in treatment A.
Key Words: Phalaenopsis, water-soluble fertilizers, closed capillary irrigation system, hand watering, volumetric water content, vegetative growth, flower production

摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgements IV
Table of Contents V
List of Figures VIII
List of Tables XI

1. Introduction 1
1.1 World production of orchids and Phalaenopsis 1
1.2 Temperature effect 3
1.3 Humidity effect 5
1.4 Light effect 5
1.5 Watering and fertilization 6
1.6 Research objectives 7
2. Literature Review 8
2.1 Irrigation methods in growing Phalaenopsis 8
2.1.1 Sub-irrigation and hand watering 8
2.1.2 Water requirements and medium types 11
2.1.3 Water quality related to alkalinity levels and
electrical conductivity (EC) 14

2.1.4 Salt accumulation problems 15
2.2 Nutrient management 18
2.2.1 Mineral requirements 18
2.2.2 Roles of nutrient management 22
3. Materials and Methods 24
3.1 Experimental location 24
3.2 Setup of the experiment 24
3.2.1 Plant material and treatments 24
3.2.2 Operation of irrigation 25
3.3 Data collection 26
3.3.1 Volumetric water content 26
3.3.2 pH and EC measurement 26
3.3.3 Measurement of vegetative growth 27
3.3.3.1 Leaf dimension 27
3.3.3.2 Shoot and root evaluation 28
3.3.4 Measurement of flowering performance 28
3.3.5 Mineral nutrient analysis 29
3.4 Data handling 29
4. Results and Discussion 30

4.1 Greenhouse environmental conditions 30
4.2 Dynamics of medium volumetric water content 32
4.3 pH and EC measurement 35
4.3.1 pH value 35
4.3.2 EC value (dS∙m-1) 37
4.4 Shoot and root evaluation 41
4.4.1 Shoot growth 41
4.4.2 Root growth 43
4.5 Flowering performance 45
4.6 Mineral nutrient analysis 49
4.6.1 Leaf tissues 49
4.6.2 Stem tissues 50
4.6.3 Root tissues 50
4.6.4 Spike tissues 50
5. Conclusions 56
6. References 58
Appendices 69
Biosketch of Author 76

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