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研究生:盧佩
研究生(外文):Guadalupe Maria Arce Chavarria
論文名稱:檸檬汁對吳郭魚肉化學、微生物及感官品評之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Lemon Marinating on Chemical, Microbiological, and Sensory Characteristics of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
指導教授:邱亞伯黃卓治黃卓治引用關係
指導教授(外文):Albert Linton Charles, Ph.D.Tzou-Chi Huang, Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業暨國際合作系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:醃料總菌落總數硫酸巴比妥酸反應物吳郭魚揮發性鹽基氮有機酸
外文關鍵詞:marinadetotal bacterial countTBARStilapiaTVBNorganic acids
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醃製魚的消費在拉丁美洲國家流行,然而該產品仍持續受到高風險食物傳播的相關疾病的困擾。醃製魚類的安全性是一個問題,由於潛在的微生物污染的魚,因為沒有進行熱處理,並涉及使用有機酸。有機酸,雖然用於食品值得商榷,通常用來醃製魚類。因此,本研究的目的是評估檸檬汁醃製吳郭魚(Oreochromis niloticus)在最終產品的化學和微生物性質之影響,並評估與比較不同的醃製的條件(檸檬汁,3%檸檬酸及3%醋酸),在醃製魚肉之化學、微生物和感官性質之影響。魚樣品浸泡在檸檬汁(魚:檸檬汁之比例在1:1至1:1.5之間),醃製2與3小時,並在4 °C下儲存最多至14天。結果顯示與未經處理的魚的樣品(對照組)相比,所有經處理樣品之pH值均顯著減少。pH值仍低於目標pH值(<4.5),存儲14天的醃製產品可被推薦。總揮發性鹽基氮(TVBN)值顯著增加在貯存期間,然而控制組之揮發性鹽基氮值均高
於醃製樣品。硫酸巴比妥酸反應物(TBARS)值往往隨貯存時間而增加,在所有樣本中,與對照組相比大幅增長,但在14天的存儲期間仍低於4 mg MDA/kg。pH值、揮發性鹽基氮值及巴比妥值分別介於6.55至3.71、1.92 - 16.17 mg N/100 g及1.07至2.30 mg MDA/kg。細菌含量(菌落總數,嗜冷細菌總數,總大腸菌群)在浸泡處理後減少,在貯存時間(14天)結束時仍低於拒收臨界(6 log cfu/g)。浸泡時間較長的樣品,顯示出較低的細菌數。檸檬汁醃製14天的魚樣品相較於分別浸泡在3%的檸檬酸和乙酸,顯示出最低的pH值。控制組與魚樣品用檸檬汁處理組之總揮發性鹽基氮值,會隨著儲存期間的時間顯著增加,相反地魚樣品用檸檬酸和乙酸處理組之揮發性鹽基氮值,會隨儲存期間的時間略有增加。硫酸巴比妥酸反應物往往隨著儲存時間而增加, 偵測所有樣本於14天處理後硫酸巴比妥酸反應物之增加量,均仍維持在較低之數值。pH、揮發性鹽基氮及硫酸巴比妥酸反應物之值分別介於6.50至3.60、1.50 - 14.30 mg N/100 g及1.1至3.60 mg MDA/kg。感官評價結果顯示,用檸檬汁醃製的魚樣品有最高的接受度,依次為3%檸檬酸醃製魚,與 3%醋酸醃製魚,由於強烈酸味在產品中,故可接受性最低。醋酸醃製過程中可有效地減少細菌的生長,但是醋酸醃製過程中產生的味道不被小組成員所接受。檸檬醃製也減少細菌的生長與延遲劣變之化學變化在吳郭魚,並為小組成員間的首選。良好作業規範,選擇新鮮的魚,及增加醃製時間可以提升檸檬醃製吳郭魚的品質與安全性。

The consumption of marinated fish is popular in Latin American countries; however, the product is troubled by persistent high risk food-borne related diseases. The safety of marinated fish is a concern due to potential microbial contamination of fish, since preparation is conducted without heat treatment and involves the use of organic acids. Organic acids, though questionable for food use, are usually used to marinate fish. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of lemon juice to marinate tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on the chemical and microbiological properties of the final product and to evaluate and compare the effects of different marinating solutions (lemon juice, 3% citric acid, and 3% acetic acid) on the chemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of the marinated fish.

Fish samples were soaked in lemon juice (fish: lemon juice, 1:1 and 1:1.5 ratio), marinated for 2 and 3 hours, and stored at 4 °C up to 14 days. The results showed a significant reduction of pH values of all samples after treatment compared with untreated fish samples (control). Values of pH remained lower than the target pH (< 4.5) recommended for marinated products stored for 14 days. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) values significantly increased during storage time; however, TVBN values of the control were higher than those found in marinated samples. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values tended to increase with storage times; sharp increases were observed in all samples compared with the control, but remained lower than 4 mg MDA/kg throughout 14 days of storage. The values of pH, TVBN, and TBARS ranged from 6.55 to 3.71, 1.92 – 16.17 mg N/100 g, and 1.07 to 2.30 mg MDA/Kg, respectively. The bacterial counts (total bacterial count, psychrotrophic bacterial count, and total coliform) were reduced after marinating treatments and remained below the rejection limit (6 log cfu/g) at the end of storage time (14 days). Samples with longer marination time showed lower bacterial counts. Fish samples marinated in lemon juice for 14 days showed the lowest pH value compared with fish marinated in 3% citric acid and acetic acid, respectively. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) values of control and fish treated with lemon juice significantly increased during storage time; on the contrary TVBN values of fish treated with citric acid and acetic acid increased slightly during storage times. TBARS values tended to increase with storage times and an increment in TBARS values were detected in all samples after treatment but remained at low levels after 14 days. The values of pH, TVBN, and TBARS ranged from 6.50 to 3.60, 1.50 – 14.30 mg N/100 g, and 1.1 to 3.60 mg MDA/Kg, respectively. Sensory evaluation results revealed that fish marinated with lemon juice scored the highest acceptability followed by fish marinated in 3% citric acid, and fish marinated in 3% acetic acid, which scored the lowest acceptability due to the strong sour taste present in this product. Acetic acid marinating process effectively decreased bacterial growth; however, the taste produced by acetic acid marinating was not accepted by the panelists. Lemon marinating also decreased bacterial growth and delayed deteriorating chemical changes in tilapia and was the preferred choice among the panelists. Good manufacturing practices, selecting fresh fish, and increasing marinating times can improve the quality and safety of lemon marinated tilapia.

中文摘要 I
English Abstract III
Acknowledgments VI
Table of Contents VII
List of Tables IX
List of Figures X
1 Introduction 1
2.1 Research objectives 2
2 Literature Review 3
2.1 Fish and Seafood 3
2.2 Fish Preservation 3
2.2.1 Cured fish 3
2.2.2 Lightly preserve fish products 4
2.2.3 Marinating 4
2.2.4 Ceviche 6
2.3 Tilapia 6
2.4 Organic acids in food processing 7
2.4.1 Acetic acid 8
2.4.2 Citric acid 9
2.4.3 Lemon juice 10
2.5 Quality control 10
2.5.1 Chemical Properties 12
2.5.2 Microbiological methods 13
2.5.4 Sensory methods 15
2.6 Shelf life of marinated seafood 16
3 Materials and Methods 18
3.1 Materials 18
3.2 Methods 19
3.2.1 Sample preparation 20
3.2.2 Determination of pH 22
3.2.3 Determination of total volatile basic nitrogen – TVBN content 22
3.2.4 Measurement of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances - TBARS 24
3.2.5 Microbiological analysis 24
3.2.6 Sensory evaluation 27
3.3 Experimental design and data analysis 28
4. Results and Discussion 29
4.1 Effect of lemon marinating on pH 29
4.2 Effect of lemon marinating on TVBN content 31
4.3 Effect of lemon marinating on lipid oxidation 33
4.4 Effect of lemon marinating on microbial load of fish 35
4.5 Effect of different marinating solutions on pH 38
4.6 Effect of different marinating solutions on TVBN content 40
4.7 Effect of different marinating solutions on lipid oxidation 42
4.8 Effect of different marinating solutions on microbial load of fish 43
4.9 Sensory evaluation 44
5. Conclusions 49
6. References 50
Appendix I 58
Appendix II 59
Biosketch of Author 64

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