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研究生:皮尼思
研究生(外文):Jean Beaunes Joseph
論文名稱:始穗期至抽穗期土壤缺水對水稻生長與發育的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Soil Water Deficit during Panicle Initiation to Heading Stages on Growth and Development of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
指導教授:蔡秀隆博士陳光堯博士
指導教授(外文):Shiow-Long TsaiGuang-Yau Stanley Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業暨國際合作系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:水稻缺水始穗期產量構成成分
外文關鍵詞:ricedroughtpanicle initiationyield component
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乾旱為影響水稻生產最嚴重的環境逆境之一,於幼穗形成始期(始穗期)遭遇乾旱逆境將導致小穗花稔實率和穀粒產量急劇減少;試驗結果顯示乾旱逆境下小穗花不稔乃因植物缺水而抑制幼穗分化和開花所造成。秈稻和粳稻種植在田間和塑膠棚內之不同水位中,兩個充分供水處理為保持土壤淹水10 cm,或是100%田間容水量(FC)之飽和水分處理。充分供水處理採用連續灌溉系統供水,乾旱處理則於始穗期至抽穗期間進行。乾旱處理包括土壤體積水分含量25.67%(70%FC)和16.50%(40%FC)之低度和高度乾旱處理。光合速率明顯受到乾旱處理影響,脯氨酸含量均顯著高於充分供水處理者。因此,田間試驗中乾旱處理下光合作用率為144.5 nmol O2/cm2/h,充分供水處理下則為260.08nmol O2/cm2/h;塑膠棚內則分別為132.54和246.37nmol O2/cm2/h。然而,脯氨酸的積累率與乾旱的嚴重程度相關,在田間試驗充分供水處理下,始穗期、孕穗和抽穗期中脯氨酸分別為0.57、0.62和0.68 μmol/g fw;在乾旱條件下分別為4.58、4.85和5.22 μmol/g fw。同樣的,在塑膠棚試驗充分供水處理下,始穗期、孕穗和抽穗期中脯氨酸分別為0.64,0.76和0.78 μmol/g fw;在乾旱條件下分別為5.19、5.74和6.49 μmol/g fw。花穗數明顯受乾旱影響,植株同時因減少水分狀態而導致嚴重減產。在塑膠棚試驗中,最高穗數(24.20)發生在淹水10 cm處理,其次是飽和水分處理(20.60)、低度乾旱處理(18.06)和高度乾旱處理(13.67)。充分供水處理下穗乾重、飽實穀粒乾重和產量均顯著高於乾旱處理;千粒穀粒重在塑膠棚試驗中充分供水和乾旱處理下分別為24.5和18.3克,田間試驗中則為26.8和22.5克。田間試驗中乾旱造成大幅減產,低度乾旱處理下產量為飽和水分處理之40%,高度乾旱處理下更只有20%;更重要的是淹水10 cm處理之產量僅為飽和水分處理之65%。與產量高度相關的有葉乾重(R2 = 0.66**)、穗乾重(R2 = 0.93***)、總乾重(R2 =0.91***)及白米產量(R2 = 0.93***)。幼穗分化過程中對乾旱脅迫的敏感性可由農藝性狀和產量調查中顯現,而且在品種間和處理間顯著不同。研究結果還顯示每叢分蘗數隨土壤水分含量下降而減少。田間試驗中每穗飽實穀粒數隨乾旱發生而減少,充分供水處理與乾旱處理下分別為179.20及143.3;塑膠棚試驗中則分別為160.35及147.62。同時,秈稻較粳稻有更高的耐旱性。分析結果顯示乾旱對產量有負面影響,而100%田間容水量之飽和水分處理對產量有最大的正面影響,其次為淹水10 cm處理。乾旱情況下幼穗分化期之小穗結實率對產量有一大且負面之間接影響。結論是乾旱條件中幼穗分化期是影響小穗不育及進而影響水稻產量最敏感的生長階段
Drought is one of the most serious environmental factors that negatively affect rice production; when it occurs at panicle initiation stage, it results in dramatic reduction of spikelet fertility and grain yield. The results indicated that spikelet sterility under drought is triggered by deficient plant water status that inhibited panicle differentiation and flowering. Two rice varieties, Indica and Japonica, were grown in a lowland field and in P-house under different water levels. Well-watered treatments consisted of two treatments; one was to keep the soil flooded up to 10 cm and the other one was to keep the soil moisture at 100% field capacity (FC) treatment respectively. Irrigation was applied using a continuous irrigation system throughout the experiment to the well-watered treatments, and the drought stress treatment was initiated differentially from panicle initiation to heading stage. Drought treatments consisted of holding the volume soil moisture at 25.67% (i.e., 70% FC) and 16.50% (i.e., 40% FC) for mild stress and severe stress respectively. Photosynthesis rate was significantly affected under drought stress compared to well-water treatments whereas proline content was significantly higher under stress conditions compared to well-water treatment. Therefore, the photosynthesis rate was 144.5 nmol O2 /cm2/h under drought treatment and 260.08 nmol O2 /cm2 /h under well-watered treatment in the field whereas it was 132.54 nmol O2 /cm2/h under drought treatment and 246.37 nmol O2 /cm2/h under well-watered treatment in the P-house experiment. However, the accumulation rate of proline was associated with the severity of drought and it varied from 0.57, 0.62 and 0.68 μmol /g fw under well-watered treatment, and 4.58, 4.85 and 5.22 μmol /g fw under drought in the field experiment at panicle initiation, booting and heading stages respectively. Similarly, it varied from 0.64, 0.76 and 0.78 μmol /g fw under well-watered treatment, and 5.19, 5.74 and 6.49 μmol /g fw under drought treatment in P-house experiment at panicle initiation, booting and heading stages respectively. Panicle number was significantly affected by drought, simultaneously with the decrease of plant water status parameters leading to important yield reduction. In P-house experiment, the highest value of panicle number (24.20) was found in flooded treatment followed by 100% FC treatment (20.60), mild stress (18.06) and severe stress (3.67) respectively. Panicle dry weight, filled grain dry weight and yield were significantly higher in the irrigated treatments than in drought stress treatments. Thousand grain (1000-grain) weight of all the irrigated treatments were heavier (24.5 g) than that of the drought (18.3 g) in P-house similarly it were heavier (26.8 g) in irrigated treatment than it was under drought (22.5 g). Drought stress substantially reduced grain yield, and the average yield in mild stress treatment was only 40% of that of 100% FC treatment in the field experiment, and the average yield in severe stress was only 20% of that of the saturated treatment. Furthermore, average yield of flooded treatment was only 65% of that of 100% FC treatment. In P-house experiment, yield was highly associated with leaf dry weight (R2=0.66**), panicle dry weight (R2=0.93***), biomass production (R2=0.91***) and polished rice (R2=0.93***). The sensitivity during panicle initiation to drought stress, as determined by the agronomic traits and yield components, was significantly different between varieties and among treatments. The results also showed the number of tillers per hill was decreased with decreased soil moisture level. Number of filled grain per panicle has been reduced under drought, but the highest amount (179.20) was found under well-watered treatment compared to drought treatment (143.3) in the field. Similarly, well-watered treatments exhibited higher number of grain per panicle (160.35) than drought treatments (147.62) in P-house experiment. Subsequently, Indica type exhibited higher tolerance to drought stress than Japonica type. The analysis revealed that drought stress had negative effects on yield, whereas 100% field capacity exhibited a major positive effect on yield followed by flooded treatment. Panicle initiation had a high and negative indirect effect on yield under drought through spikelet fertility. It is concluded that panicle initiation is the most sensitive growth stage that affects rice yield through the increase of spikelet sterility under drought stress.
Chinese Abstract…………………………………………………………………I
English Abstract ………………………………………………………..……....III
Acknowledge……………………………………………………...…….............VI
Table of content………………….………………………….……………........VII
List of Tables ……………………………………………………...…................XI
List of Figures…………………………………………………………............XIII
1. Introduction………………………………………………………….................1
2. Literature Review……………………………………………………………...6
2.1 Environmental stress and soil water availability……………..………….6
2.2 Threat of water use in agriculture………………………….…………….7
2.2.1 Water use in rice production …………………………………..........7
2.3 Effect of drought on rice plant water status…………………….………..9
2.4 Rice ecosystem and production……………………………...…………..9
2.4.1 Rainfed rice ecosystems, drought-prone areas and rice production…....…………………………………………………….10
2.4.2 Drought and reproductive stages of rice…….…………..................10
2.4.3 Effect of drought on flowering……………….…...……..................11
2.5 Plant responses to drought……………….……………………………..12
2.5.1Osmotic adjustment in rice plant………………..………..…...........13
VIII
2.5.2 Physiological and ecological responses of rice to water scarcity…………………………………………....13
2.5.3 Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense...……...……….14
2.6 Leaf relative water content…...…………………...…………...…….....15
2.7 Chlorophyll meter….…….………………………..……………............15
2.7.1 Photosynthesis activity under water scarcity…………………........17
2.8 Tiller production ……………………………….….…………...............18
2.9 Soil properties……………..…………………….………………..……19
2.9.1 Soil physical characteristics....…………………………….………19
2.9.1.1 Particle density………………………………..….…………...19
2.9.1.2 Bulk density…………………………………………………..20
2.9.1.3 Total porosity……………..…………………………………..20
2.9.2 Soil chemical characteristics………………………………................21
2.9.2.1 Soil pH……………………………………..……..….……….21
3. Materials and Methods…………………………………………….…….......22
3.1 Plastic house (P-house) experiment……………...…………..………....22
3.2 Field experiment……………………………………….……..…..........22
3.3 Climatic conditions………...……………...………………....….......…23
3.4 Experiment design………………………………………….……..........25
3.5 Soil properties determination……………………………….…….........26
IX
3.5.1 Bulk density……………………………………….………………26
3.5.2 Particle density and porosity………………………….....………...27
3.5.3 Soil electrical conductivity and pH…………………...….………..27
3.5.4 Field capacity…………………………………..……...……..........27
3.6 Soil water status during drought stress……………………....…...........29
3.7 Field management ………………………………………….….............30
3.8 Plant sample analysis……………………………………………….......31
3.8.1 Agronomic characteristics…………….………..………..…...........31
3.8.2 Leaf relative water content………………………………………...32
3.8.3 SPAD-reading…………………………………..…………...…….32
3.8.4 Determination of photosynthesis rate ..…………………...….........32
3.8.5 Determination of proline content…………………………..……....33
3.8.6 Rice harvest………………..…………………………………........34
3.8.7 Harvest index and yield………………………………….......…….34
3.8.8 Rice post harvest process…………………………………..............35
3.9 Statistical analysis……………………………………..….…………….35
4. Results and Discussion………………………………………………............36
4.1 Leaf relative water content of rice plant in the field……………...........36
4.2 Leaf chlorophyll content of rice plant in field….………….…...….......38
4.3 Photosynthesis activity of rice plant in the field…………………….....43
X
4.4 Agronomic characteristics…………………………..…...……………..46
4.4.1 Plant height……………………………….…......……………........46
4.4.2 Culm dry weight…………………………….….…………….……49
4.4.3 Tillering activity……………………………….…...……….……..50
4.4.4 Leaf dry weight……………………...……………......………........51
4.5 Rice harvest index…………………...………………...….……...….....53
4.6 Effect of drought stress on yield and related traits in field
experiment…………………………….…………………..……………55
4.7 Leaf proline accumulation in pot P-house and field experiment.…........67
4.8 Plant agronomic characters in the P-house experiment..…..…..……….69
4.8.1 Tiller number, plant height, culm dry weight and panicle number………………………..……………………..…….……....69
4.9 Quantitative traits in rice………………......……..………….....….……74
4.9.1 Effect drought stress on 1000-grain weight of rice…......….............74
4.9.2 Number of spikelet per panicle…….….……………….………..…75
4.9.3 Grain yield of rice in P-house experiment……...……....……….…77
5. Conclusions…………………….……………...……………...……………...79
6. References……………………………..…...…………...…………….…...…82
7. Biosketch of the author………………...…….………………….……..…....101

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