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研究生:李文瑄
研究生(外文):Wen-Shuan Lee
論文名稱:台灣南部食蛇龜 (Cuora flavomarginata) 之溫度調節、微棲地利用與活動範圍
論文名稱(外文):Thermoregulation, Microhabitat Use and Home Range of the Yellow-margined Box Turtle (Cuora flavomarginata) in Southern Taiwan
指導教授:陳添喜博士
指導教授(外文):Dr. Tien-Hsi Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:野生動物保育研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生態學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:食蛇龜溫度調節溫度記錄器微棲地
外文關鍵詞:Cuora flavomarginatathermoregulationtemperature dataloggermicrohabitat
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本研究利用溫度記錄器記錄台灣南部食蛇龜(Cuora flavomarginata)背甲溫度及環境溫度的變化,並探討環境溫度對食蛇龜溫度調節、微棲地利用及活動範圍的影響。龜鱉動物的體溫會受到環境溫度的影響,因龜鱉動物無法自行產生足夠體熱以維持體溫恆定,因此藉由於不同溫度條件的微棲地間移動調節體溫,以適應環境溫度的變化。本研究於2011年11月至2012年10月於捕捉之2隻母龜及4隻公龜背甲黏以溫度記錄器及無線電發訊器,並於森林環境放置溫度記錄器,記錄背甲溫度及環境溫度,並利用無線電追蹤記錄定位點及測量食蛇龜的微棲地。本研究結果顯示,公母龜分別於12月至2月及3月溫度調節程度最明顯,且整年的溫度調節程度以公龜明顯多於母龜,由定位點資料顯示公龜冬季有半埋於土中之渡冬行為,而母龜則棲息於地表。食蛇龜整年都利用相對濕度在85 %以上、樹冠層覆蓋度在80 %以上及底層植生覆蓋度介於60-90 %的森林環境中。公龜於冬季的溫度調節現象有別於北部食蛇龜族群冬季的溫度順應現象,母龜於冬季無公龜之半埋土中的溫度調節現象,應與微棲地基質中具有保溫功能的落葉有關,且母龜於產卵季無明顯的背甲溫度增加及利用開闊環境的溫度調節現象,應與南部環境溫度較北部溫暖有關。森林環境是食蛇龜主要的棲息地點,而近年來因棲息地嚴重受到人類干擾以及獵捕壓力,導致南部地區食蛇龜的生存受到嚴重威脅,本研究於研究期間有3隻樣本受到盜獵,及多次發現獵人放置的鼠籠。本研究發現食蛇龜溫度調節現象有南北差異,因此生活習性亦有所差異,建議未來對於不同地區食蛇龜的棲地需求投入更多研究,並加強棲地保護並取締盜獵行為。
As ectotherms, the body temperature of turtles generally conformed to environment temperature. Because they cannot generate enough body heat to maintain body temperatures, they regulate their body temperature through shuttling among different thermal microhabitats to acclimate environment temperature variation. This study was conducted from November 2011 to October 2012. To record carapace temperatures of turtles and measure microhabitat characters, two female and four male turtles were fixed with temperature dataloggers and radio transmitters on carapace. Thermoregulation is most significant in December to February for males and in March for females. Furthermore, males thermoregulated more than females all year. According to relocations, males were found buried in dirt parially in winter, but females stayed on ground surface. Turtles usually use the microhabitat with relative humidity above 85%, canopy cover above 80% and understory coverage from 60 to 90% in forest. Because temperatures is warmer in southern than in northern Taiwan, males in this study thermoregulated in winter to acclimate low environment temperature which is different from thermoconforming in northern population, and unlike males, females didn’t bury in dirt in winter to regulate body temperature. Because females use leaf litter to preserve heat in winter. During nesting season (May- July) females in northern Taiwan usually use open field to gain higher shell temperature than males, however in southern population didn’t. Yellow- margined box turtles, Cuora flavomarginata, mainly inhabit in forest, but in recent years, due to habitat disturbed seriously by human and illegal hunting , threatened their survival in southern Taiwan. During the study period, there were three individuals missing by poaching, and repeatedly found the rodent traps placed by hunters. According to this study, turtles in northern and southern Taiwan face different thermal conditions. Therefore, the behavior of them should be different. Study on habitat requirement for yellow-margined box turtles in other region and legal enforcement are needed.
摘要 .................................................................................................................. I
Abstract ........................................................................................................... III
謝誌 .................................................................................................................. V
目錄 ............................................................................................................... VII
圖表目錄 .......................................................................................................... X
壹、前言 ........................................................................................................... 1
一、溫度調節 ............................................................................................... 1
二、微棲地利用 ........................................................................................... 2
三、活動範圍 ............................................................................................... 3
四、物種介紹 ............................................................................................... 4
五、研究目的 ............................................................................................... 4
貳、方法 ........................................................................................................... 6
一、研究樣區 ............................................................................................... 6
二、捕捉標記及無線電追蹤 ....................................................................... 6
三、溫度測量 ............................................................................................... 7
四、微棲地測量 ........................................................................................... 8
五、活動範圍 ............................................................................................... 9
六、資料分析 ............................................................................................... 9
參、結果 ......................................................................................................... 11
一、食蛇龜背甲溫度與環境溫度 ............................................................. 11
(一) 10月至11月(渡冬前) ......................................................... 11
(二) 12月至2月(渡冬) ............................................................... 12
(三) 3月至9月(渡冬後) ............................................................. 12
二、微棲地利用 ......................................................................................... 13
(一) 微棲地溫度與相對濕度 ............................................................ 13
(二) 微棲地樹冠層覆蓋度、底層植生覆蓋度及地表基質種類 .... 13
三、活動範圍 ............................................................................................. 14
四、食蛇龜個體資料 ................................................................................. 15
肆、討論: ........................................................................................................ 16
VIII
一、 溫度調節 ........................................................................................... 16
二、 微棲地利用 ....................................................................................... 18
三、 活動範圍 ........................................................................................... 20
四、南部族群現況 ..................................................................................... 22
伍、結論 ......................................................................................................... 23
參考文獻 ......................................................................................................... 25
附錄1、於翡翠水庫水源保護區內食蛇龜(Cuora flavomarginata)族群研究中累計捕獲次數與累計標放個體數的關係(1996年5月至1998年5月)(陳添喜, 1998)。 ................................................................. 57
照片1、以市售鼠籠(29x17x14cm)內放置成熟香蕉當誘餌捕捉食蛇龜(Cuora flavomarginata),籠子皆設置在森林底層的遮陰環境,以避免食蛇龜直接受到陽光曝曬而脫水。........................................... 58
照片2、辨識性別(趙平, 1993)。(上圖)母龜尾較短且細,尾部之泄殖腔開口位置於腹甲緣盾後緣或內側;(下圖)公龜尾較長且粗,泄殖腔開口位置於遠離緣盾。 ............................................................... 59
照片3、捕捉之個體以環氧樹脂(即AB膠)於背甲左側第一側盾黏上無線電發訊器(加拿大Holohil Systems Ltd.所製RI-2B型,重量約為10公克,電池壽命18個月)及背甲右側第一側盾黏上溫度記錄器(由美國Maxim integrated公司生產之iButton,產品型號DS1922L,準確度±0.5℃,記憶體容量8Kb,重量約3.3公克),且總重不超過Beaupre et al.(2004)建議之重量不超過體重的10%。 ................ 60
照片4、2012年2-3月於屏科大校內設置食蛇龜(Cuora flavomarginata)半圈養環境,並記錄同一時間點之背甲溫度與泄殖腔溫度共27筆(N=1)。 .............................................................................................. 61
照片5、參考Converse and Savidge(2003)以PVC水管製作長50cm x寬20cm的Daubenmire Frame(Daubenmire, 1959)測量追蹤到個體之微棲地底層植生覆蓋度之百分比(食蛇龜背甲上方,約離地表15-30公分高)及地表基質種類(即食蛇龜腹甲周圍之石塊、碎石、落葉、土壤、草地及其他)所佔百分比。....................................... 62
照片6、台南楠西山區之食蛇龜(Cuora flavomarginata)於12月至2月,公母龜不同的渡冬行為(上圖:公龜;下圖:母龜);公龜半埋於土中,
IX
母龜則棲息於地表底植被密的地方。 ............................................... 63
作者簡介 ......................................................................................................... 64

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