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研究生:劉家輝
研究生(外文):DAVER KA FAI LAU
論文名稱:以旅客為中心的服務合作平台之商業模式研究
論文名稱(外文):Business Model Review - Traveller Centric Service Collaboration Platform
指導教授:林博文林博文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin, Bou-Wen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:高階經營管理碩士在職專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:服務合作平台商業模式旅客旅遊技術旅遊服務價值鏈
外文關鍵詞:servicecollaboration platformbusiness modeltravellertravel technologytravel service value chain
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摘 要

世界觀光旅遊委員會(World Travel and Tourism Council) 的2011年旅遊報告,預測了全球觀光產業從2011年到2012年將維持髙成長率。

觀光(T&T)是一個髙度分散的產業,因為在旅遊服務價值錬裏為了分銷及服務的提供, 存在著許多利害關係者。

網際網路的出現已從根本上改變了旅遊服務價值鏈裏利害關係人間的關係。特別是,旅遊服務價值鏈的服務供應商強烈渴望與旅客建立直接的關係,並同時藉由旅客提升自助預訂工具的接受度。這些對旅遊服務價值鏈的分銷部份的利害關係人造成了重大的威脅。

在服務提供方面,無接縫旅客經驗是一個越來越重要的槪念。但如果人們透過現今旅遊服務價值鏈的每一個接觸點來看旅客經驗,這旅客經驗絶算不上無接縫。

儘管旅遊分銷解決方案的技術進步,但旅遊服務價值鏈裏的服務供應商仍持續獨自地,幾乎沒有以其他協作的方式來服務旅客。從一個科技的觀點來看,服務供應商之間的服務協作概念,是一個待填補的缺口同時也是一個為旅客創造價值的機會。

至今,對觀光產業的服務供應商而言,在旅遊服務協作的技術上還沒有重要的發展,因為在服務供應商之間缺乏[1]資料整合的策略,接著[2]可行的商業模式以激勵在旅遊服務價值鏈裏的利害關係者投資在這樣的科技上。

這份報告建議 [1]一個簡要以顧客為中心的資料分享槪念做為資料整合策略發展的基礎,以使服務供應商間能夠達成協作。[2] 一個以服務協作科技開發及使用為目地的商業模式 ("To-Be"商業模式),命名為旅客導向服務協作平台 (Traveller Centric Service Collaboration Platform),它讓旅遊服務供應商為髙產值完全獨立的客群,帶來一個更無縫的旅客經驗。這份報告也為在價值鏈中的分銷部份中所選出的公司,將 “As-is"的商業模式,與以九區塊商業模式圖(Business Model Canvas)上的SWOT分析為基礎的To-be"的商業模式做比較,以決定評價最高的公司來採用 “To-be”的商業模式。

II. Abstract
World Travel and Tourism Council’s Travel and Tourism 2011 report forecasted the global travel and tourism industry to sustain a high growth rate from 2011 to 2021.
Travel and tourism (T&T) is a highly fragmented industry because there are many stakeholders in the travel service value chain [TS-VC], for both distribution and service fulfilment.
The advent of the internet has fundamentally changed the relationships among the stakeholders in [TS-VC]. In particular, service fulfilment providers of [TS-VC]’s strong desire to establish direct relationship with the travellers, together with the increasing acceptance of self-booking tools by the travellers have created a significant threat for stakeholders in the distribution component of the travel service value chain.
On the service fulfilment side, the concept of a seamless traveller experience is a concept that is gaining importance, but if one is to look at the traveller experience through every touch point of the [TS-VC] today, the traveller’s experience is far from seamless.
Despite technological advances in travel distribution solutions, service fulfilment providers in the [TS-VC] continue to serve travellers independently and with little to no collaboration. From a technology perspective, the concept of service collaboration among service fulfilment providers in the [TS-VC] is both a gap to be fulfilled and an opportunity to create value for the traveller.
To date, there has been no significant development in travel service collaboration technology for service fulfilment providers in T&T, due to the lack of [1] data integration strategy among service fulfilment providers and subsequently [2] a viable business model to motivate stakeholders in the travel service value chain to invest in such technology.
This report recommends a [1] a high level customer centric data sharing concept to serve as a basis for the development of a data integration strategy to enable collaboration among service fulfilment providers and [2] a business model (“To-be” business model) for the development and adoption of service collaboration technology, named as the Traveller Centric Service Collaboration Platform for travel service fulfilment providers to bring about a more seamless traveller experience for the high yield Fully Independent Traveller (FIT) segment. This report also compares the “As-is” business models for selected companies in the distribution component of [TS-VC] to the “To-be” business model based on a SWOT analysis on the 9 Blocks Business Model Canvas to determine the company with the highest rating to adopt the “To-be” business model.

I. Definition of Terms 8
II. Abstract 9
III. Acknowledgement 12
IV. Research Background and Motivation 14
Travel Service Value Chain [TS-VC] = [D-VC] + [S-VC] 14
Nature of T&T Fragmentation of S-VC 14
T&T and Technology Impact 15
Problem Definition – A Difference in Perspective of The Traveller’s Trip 17
V. Research Purpose 18
A Tool for Service Collaboration - Dynamic Itinerary 18
VI. Literature Review 19
Overview of the Global Travel and Tourism Industry (T&T) 20
T&T an Economic Growth Engine 20
3 Notable Characteristics of T&T – Seasonal, Resilience and Growth 21
T&T from 2011 to 2021 22
“Who is who” in TS-VC 23
Who is who in [TS-VC] – Traveller 24
Who is who in [TS-VC] → [S-VC] 27
Who is who in [TS-VC] → [D-VC] 27
Before Dotcom - Relationship between [D-VC] and [S-VC] 27
After Dotcom - Relationship between [D-VC] and [S-VC] 28
Customer Relationship, Channel Priorities - Perspective of s-VC 28
Channel Conflict, Threat of Disintermediation – Perspective of d-VC 29
Travel Trends in Asia Pacific – 2011 to 2030 30
The Me Effect 30
The Red Tape Effect 32
The Leapfrog Effect 34
The Barbell Effect 37
Implications of the 4 Effects for s-VCs in Asia Pacific region and global T&T 39
VII. Research Methodology 41
Business Model Canvas 41
VIII. Research Objective and Scope 46
IX. Initial Service Collaboration Initiatives – Airline Alliances within s-VC [airline] 47
Today - Difference in Perspective of the Traveller Itinerary 56
Mr. T’s Itinerary 58
Mr. T’s Travel Experience 59
Mr. T’s Calendar 61
Dynamic Itinerary - A Tool for Service Collaboration 63
X. Business Models for SCP(tc) 66
XI. Potential Candidates for SCP(tc) 73
Expedia, [D-VC](OTA) 73
Expedia “As-is” Business Model 75
SWOT Analysis – Expedia “As-is” Business Model 78
Amadeus, [D-VC](GDS) 84
Amadeus “As-is” Business Model 86
SWOT Analysis – Amadeus “As-is” Business Model 90
Google, [D-VC](Search Engine) 96
Google “As-is” Business Model 96
SWOT Analysis – Google as “As-is” Business Model 101
SWOT – 9 Blocks Cumulative Summary Chart – “As-is” Business Model 106
SWOT – 9 Blocks Cumulative Summary Chart – SCP(tc) Business Model Incorporated 106
First Mover Advantage for SCP(tc) 106
XII. Conclusions and Recommendations 110
Summary 110
Recommendation for Future Research 111
XIII. Literature Reference 112
Literature 112
Websites 113
Literature

WTTC: World Travel & Tourism Council, Travel and Tourism 2011. White Paper, WTTC, http://www.wttc.org/site_media/uploads/downloads/traveltourism2011.pdf, accessed June 2013
WTTC: World Travel & Tourism Council, The Review 2011. White Paper, WTTC, http://www.wttc.org/site_media/uploads/downloads/WTTC_Review_2011.pdf, accessed June 2013
Amadeus: Shaping the Future of Travel in Asia Pacific. White Paper, Amadeus, http://www.amadeusapac.com/cmcapac/APACWhitepapers/downloads/Shaping_the_future_of_travel_in_APAC.pdf, accessed June 2013
Amadeus: From Chaos to Collaboration – How transformative technologies will herald a new era in travel. White Paper, Amadeus, http://www.amadeus.com/upload_ineed/userfiles/file/Amadeus%20study%20From%20chaos%20to%20collaboration.pdf, accessed June 2013
Amadeus: The always-connected traveller: How mobile will transform the future of air travel. White Paper, Amadeus, http://www.amadeus.com/airlineit/the-always-connected-traveller/docs/amadeus-the-always-connected-traveller-2011-en.pdf, accessed June 2013
Expedia, Inc., 2012 Annual Report, Dec. 31 2012, from Expedia Inc. investor relations website, http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/EXPE/2655800648x0x659394/517e31ce-ff79-42c0-899c-df6831888e54/EXPE_2012_Annual_Report.PDF, accessed June 2013
Amadeus IT Group SA., 2012 Annual Report, 31 Dec 12 2012, from Amadeus IT Group SA. Investor relations website, http://www.amadeus.com/msite/investors/quarterly_financial_info/annual_reports/2012/en/home.html, accessed June 2013
Google Inc., 2012 Annual Report, 31 Dec 2012, from Google Inc., investor relations website, http://investor.google.com/pdf/2012_google_annual_report.pdf, accessed June 2013

CEN: Harmonization of data interchange in tourism. CEN Workshop Agreement, CWA 15592, ICS 35.240.60, CEN, ftp://cenftp1.cenorm.be/PUBLIC/CWAs/eTOUR/, accessed June 2013
UNWTO: Tourism Towards 2030. White Paper, World Tourism Organization, http://dtxtq4w60xqpw.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/docpdf/documentosunwtotourismtowards2030reporteng864f804c.pdf, accessed June 2013
胡明偉、劉家輝、史巨夫、王台生、黃峙銘、蘇建華、翁淑惠, “4D 旅行家
For Dissatisfied Business Travelers”, NTHU ISS Final Term Project, 2012
Chris Holloway, Claire Humphreys: The Business of Tourism, Ninth Edition. Pearson, 2012
Alexander Osterwalder, Yves Pigneur : Business Model Generation : A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010
Websites

Amadeus IT Group SA, www.amadeus.com
Travel Technology Research Ltd, www.t2rl.com
Expedia Inc., www.expedia.com
Kuoni Travel Holding Limited, http://www.kuoni.com
World Travel & Tourism Council, www.wttc.org
World Tourism Organization UNWTO, www2.unwto.org
PhocusWright Inc., http://www.phocuswright.com/
Business Model Foundry GmbH, http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/

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