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研究生:高宏達
研究生(外文):Kao, Hung-ta
論文名稱:中文虛擬態與主句現象的研究
論文名稱(外文):Subjunctive Mood and Main Clause Phenomena in Mandarin Chinese
指導教授:蔡維天蔡維天引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:167
中文關鍵詞:虛擬態主句現象主題化焦點化說話者導向副詞
外文關鍵詞:Subjunctive MoodMain Clause PhenomenaTopicalizationFocalizationSpeaker-Oriented Adverbs
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本篇論文分成兩大部分。第一部分處理中文的虛擬態,目的在找出中文虛擬態補語子句可以出現的環境。我檢驗建議類動詞的補語子句與時態標記和模態詞之間的互動。如果我們採用Smith (1991)對於語法時態和辭彙時態的分類,那麼中文的虛擬態補語子句只允許辭彙時態標記。另外,如果我們從模態詞的角度來看,中文的虛擬態補語子句只允許義務性模態。

論文的第二部分處理中文的主句現象。Haegeman (2012a, 2012b)指出從屬子句的行為和主要子句並不相同。主句似乎對一些句法運作有一些特權。例如主題化不能出現在部分從句內。他觀察英文和拉丁語系後發現:在英文的狀語子句內,狀語可前移,但是論文不行。另外一方面,拉丁語系的黏著語左移可以在狀語子句的左緣發生。根據Haegeman的觀察,中文的幾類從屬子句的長度是否較短。最後我利用製圖理論給出中文主要子句和從屬子句的結構。

The body of this thesis is divided into two parts. The first part deals with subjunctive mood in Mandarin Chinese, whereby the environments in which subjunctive complement clauses occur are testified in indirect ways and are found to fall in a few categories. In addition, I examine how the complement clauses of desiderative predicates interact with aspects and modals. If we adopt Smith’s (1991) insight on grammatical aspects and lexical aspects, Mandarin allows only lexical aspects in a subjunctive complement clause. Moreover, if we view subjunctive complement clauses from a modality perspective, only deontic modality can occur in a subjunctive environment. I call it a desiderative-deontic effect.

The second part tackles the main clause phenomenon (henceforth the MCP). Haegeman (2006a, 2010, 2011, 2012a, 2012b) (and some references therein) mentions that the behavior of subordinate clauses is different from root clauses. Main clauses seem to have some privilege in that a handful of syntactic patterns, such as topicalization, do not appear in subordinate clauses. She observes that there is a double asymmetry between English and Romance languages. In English, adjuncts can front to the left of adverbial clauses, while arguments cannot; clitic left dislocation (henceforth CLLD) in Romance languages is admitted in the left periphery of adverbial clauses. Based on Haegeman’s ideas, I investigate whether the length of some clause types in Mandarin is truncated and whether there is a distinction between central and peripheral adverbial clauses in the sense of Haegeman (2012a, 2012b). Moreover, I adopt the cartographic approach (Rizzi 1997, 2004; Cinque 1999) to show the structure of root and subordinate clauses in Chinese.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii
TABLE OF CONTENS iv
LIST OF TABLES vi
ABBREVIATIONS vii
ABSTRACT (English) ix
ABSTRACT (Chinese) x

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction 3
2.2 Subjunctive Mood 3
2.2.1 Where does subjunctive mood occur? 3
2.2.2 Subjunctive mood in English 9
2.2.3 Subjunctive mood in Romance and Balkan languages 11
2.3 Main Clause Phenomena 15
2.3.1 Truncation and double asymmetry 17
2.3.1 Intervention and double asymmetry 18

CHAPTER 3 SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

3.1 Introduction 28
3.2 Simple Sentences 29
3.2.1 Interaction with aspectual markers 29
3.2.2 Interaction with modals and aspects 33
3.3 Complex Sentences 40
3.3.1 Interaction with modals under a matrix desiderative predicate 40
3.3.2 Interaction with aspects under a matrix desiderative predicate 42
3.3.3 Interaction with modals and aspects under a matrix desiderative predicate 44
3.3.4 Sentences with other kinds of matrix predicates 45
3.4 Summary and Discussion 54
3.5 Conclusion 69

CHAPTER 4 MAIN CLAUSE PHENOMENA

4.1 Introduction 70
4.2 Main Clause Phenomena in English 70
4.2.1 Complement of factive predicates 70
4.2.2 Clausal complement of nouns 72
4.2.3 Sentential subjects 73
4.2.4 Adverbial clauses 74
4.2.5 Interim summary 75
4.3 Topicalization in Mandarin Chinese 75
4.3.1 Adverbial clauses 77
4.3.2 Complement of factive and subjunctive predicates 81
4.3.3 Clausal complement of nouns and sentential subjects 84
4.3.4 Interim summary 89
4.4 Focalization in Mandarin Chinese 89
4.4.1 Adverbial clauses 91
4.4.2 Complement clauses 94
4.4.3 Clausal complement of nouns and sentential subjects 96
4.5 The Double Asymmetry Revisited 99
4.5.1 English and Japanese 99
4.5.2 Clitic left dislocation 105
4.5.3 The status of empty objects in Chinese subordinate clauses 108
4.6 Speaker-Oriented Adverbs 114
4.6.1 Speaker-oriented adverbs and adverbial clauses 115
4.6.2 Speaker-oriented adverbs and complement clauses 118
4.6.3 Summary and discussion 122
4.7 Cartography of Subordinate Clauses in Mandarin Chinese 127
4.8 Conclusion 137

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUDING REMARKS 139

APPENDIX 1 A DICHOTOMY 142

APPENDIX 2 SPEAKER COMMITMENT AND PRESUPPOSITION 149

APPENDIX 3 FACTIVE EMOTIVE PREDICATES 156

REFERENCES 162

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