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研究生:吳為緯
研究生(外文):Wu, Wei-wei
論文名稱:彼得潘與阿德尼斯: 2000年至2010年間歐洲男裝中男性圖像
論文名稱(外文):Between Peter Pan and Adonis: The Male Images in European Menswear, 2000s-2010s
指導教授:陳春燕 副教授
指導教授(外文):Dr. Chen, Chun-yen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:歐洲文化與觀光研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:228
中文關鍵詞:歐洲男裝男性氣質男性形象男模消費主義
外文關鍵詞:European menswearmasculinitymale imagemale modelsconsumerism
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本篇論文將探討當代歐洲男裝從2000年至2010年間呈現出的男性圖像的發展。筆者認為歐洲時尚呈現的男性圖像能夠啟發當代對於男性身分的看法。首先在緒論中筆者將透過分析西方男性時尚相關具代表性的文獻勾勒本研究背後動機,並闡述如何經由文獻中相異的立場與脈絡進行研究。在《創世紀》一章中,筆者以90年代美國義大利的情色時尚風格為起,探討男裝中男性胴體的再現如何呼應時代中對於男性身分的認知的變動。同時藉由閱讀近期內歐洲男裝情色風格圖像中呈現的男性展演,筆者認為再現的男體並非單純陽具中心而隱含社會對當代男性身分的看法。在《突變》一章中則由迪奧男裝帶來對於男性再現的巨大轉變中,觀察巴黎當代男裝如何超越主流的展示猛男手法,跳脫美國式大眾消費主義的範疇而轉與現代主義結合,增生出以纖瘦與年輕化為主的多種不同男性形象。筆者認為這些圖像猶如藝術史中的鏡像,透過現代性的恐懼與賤斥的手法呈現男性病徵,例如猛男情節與彼得潘症候群,諷刺地投射出社會對於男性身分如何建構在對於陽剛性與父權的迷戀上。在《男性氣質的病徵式展演》一章中,筆者更進一步觀察當代年輕化的米蘭與巴黎男裝,並藉由時尚評論中man-boy一詞呈現的男人與男孩間的身分空隙,探討現代西方主流男性身分與性別認同的建構過程。Man-boy的形象藉由透過回顧式現代主義創作手法與使用和青少年文化相關的男模作為靈感來源,呈現出不穩定性質:儘管圖像表面呈現浪漫與歡樂,有時卻投射出男性社會身分建構過程中的焦慮、遺漏與創傷。在現代性的恐懼與焦慮中,這些圖像呈現出猶如烏托邦的啟示,提醒當代社會對於男性身分進行反思,特別是隱含在社會常規中的父權與本質主義的男性認同。而這些圖像儘管是資本主義的一環,但對於男性身分上的期望仍是可見的:男性身分不應該侷限在社會主流中,社會也不能夠再執著於對性別本質主義中「真理」的追求,反而應該追求更開明與融合的混雜身分。
The present study examines the development of male images in European fashion industry during the period 2000s – 2010s. I argue that the male images in European fashion can illuminate what a contemporary male identity is. In the introductory chapter, I outline the motivation behind this project, analyze representative studies of men’s fashion in the West, and explain where I converge with and where I depart from them. The chapter “Genesis” begins with discussions on images of male nudity created under the Italian-American influence of porno-chic, and focus on how such fashion imagery responds to the social context in the late 1990s with changes of representations of men. In a close-up study of gender performance through the male models in recent porno-chic imageries, I contend that such representations of male nudity are not so much phallic but inspire the social conception of male identity. The chapter “Mutation” examines the Parisian paradigm shift brought out by Dior Homme in representations of male identity: the way of representing masculinity is no longer univocally through displaying Americanized popular bulky musculature, and images are proliferating into various forms centered on youth and slim physique. I also examine how these images can be viewed as modernist parody and abjection in the contemporary social conception of masculinity. They serve as mirrors, symptomatically reflecting society’s obsessive pursuit of Man in patriarchy and essentialist understanding of sex/gender models. This study further explores male images in rejuvenated contemporary Milanese and Parisian menswear in the chapter “The Symptomatic Performances of Masculinity.” By the term man-boy, I refer to images that envisage a gap, allowing one to see the construction of modern Western male identity onto the male models. Such images of man-boy are created with Retro-modernist manners that infuse disdained European subcultural styles in various historical periods as well as the incorporation of youth culture. And these images are unstable: they can be ostensibly celebratory and romantic, yet at times projecting the anxiety, dereliction, and trauma regarding our social conceptions of masculinity and male identity. This study concludes that these images hold a Utopian prospect to the future and reminds contemporary society of patriarchal man masqueraded by our social norms. One can gain insight from these capitalist images, and see that liberal and hybrid male identity should be allowed in society.
I. INTRODUCTION 1
A. Motivation 1
B. Literature review 2
1. Defining men’s fashion in Western consumer society 2
2. Consumerism and society: more than domination from capitalism 7
3. What’s man gotta to do with it?: “masculinity” and the “gaze” 11
4. “Never enough”: fallacy of social determinism 14
5. New Man against the unfashionable man in 1980s – 1990s 17
6. Shapeshifters in European men’s fashion 23
7. Alterity against monochromatic West: on the edge of the consumption 25
C. Methodology: 31
1. “The look” as commodity: consumerism upgraded in contemporary fashion 31
2. Reading the model’s “look” as text: the male model’s body and gender “performance” in fashion 33
II. GENESIS: 38
A. Italian “sexual revolution” in America: masculinity in male nudity 38
B. The birth of Adonis in “porno-chic” 43
C. The Italian queer performance: men at play 48
D. From Paris with reference 54
III. MUTATION: 58
A. Emergence of “new” masculinities through the male models 58
B. Hedi-Slimanization: the modernist paradigm shift of Dior Homme 61
C. Dangerous muse: deathliness and decadence of omnipotent masculinity 71
D. Reaction: the social symptoms of Peter Pans 78
1. The abject body: Parisian Peter Pan’s reduced silhouette 78
2. Andrej’s favorite game: staged performance and calculated androgyny 82
IV. THE SYMPTOMATIC PERFORMANCES OF MASCULINITY: 87
A. “Man-boy” in contemporary European fashion 87
B. The masquerade of Italian man-boy 89
C. Rewinding to the “Age of Innocence”: play in Retro-modernist manners 100
1. “We don’t need no education”: nostalgic youthful rebellious “drag” 100
2. Italian neo-Romanticist performances: glam rock and luxury 109
V. CONCLUSION: 118
A. “Where do we go from here?” : prospect of masculinity to the future 118
B. “The best is yet to come”: hybrid man-boys in globalization and consumerism 123
References 128
Appendix 131

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