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研究生:陳禾張
研究生(外文):Ho-Chang Chen
論文名稱:台灣地區擱淺死亡海龜體內之旋睪科(Spirorchiidae)住血吸蟲的種類分佈及病理學研究
論文名稱(外文):Spirorchiid flukes in stranded sea turtles in Taiwan:spirorchiids distribution and pathology study
指導教授:程一駿程一駿引用關係
指導教授(外文):I-Jiunn Cheng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:旋睪科住血吸蟲海龜感染率病理
外文關鍵詞:SpirorchiidiasisSea turtlePathologyHapalotremaLearediusCarettacola
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旋睪科(Spirorchiidae)住血吸蟲被認為是世界各地海龜族群常見的寄生蟲,其寄生所引起的spirorchiidiasis被認為可能是導致海龜擱淺或死亡的重要原因之一,近年來國內海龜因病擱淺或死亡的案例時有所聞,且分布於全台的海岸線,根據調查顯示,擱淺死亡綠蠵龜的旋睪科住血吸蟲感染率高達70%,其中部分海龜的死因可能與spirorchiidiasis相關,因此為了解旋睪科住血吸蟲對台灣地區海龜的可能影響,本研究收集了73隻台灣地區擱淺及死亡海龜,包括1隻革龜、4隻赤蠵龜、7隻玳瑁和61隻綠蠵龜,所有海龜旋睪科吸蟲的感染率為65.7% (48/73),其中綠蠵龜感染率佔全部的61.3%,玳瑁佔2.7%,若依各龜種來分,綠蠵龜的感染率為75.4%(46/61)、玳瑁為28.6%(2/7),赤蠵及革龜則未發現有感染。其中23隻海龜(22隻綠蠵龜、1隻玳瑁)發現有吸蟲蟲體,包括3屬5種的spirorchiid吸蟲,分別為Leardius learedi、Hapalotrema mehrai、H. postorchis、H. mistroides及Carettacola hawaiiensis,其中以L. learedi、H. mehrai、H. postorchis三種為最常見;所有的吸蟲中,除H. mistroides的宿主為玳瑁外,其餘皆為綠蠵龜,而H. mistrodies為全球首次發現寄生於玳瑁的吸蟲,C. hawaiiensis則為夏威夷地區綠蠵龜以外的首次記錄種,而研究也發現三種型態的spirorchiids蟲卵,其中type I型蟲卵最大且最為常見,type II型蟲卵最為少見,type III型蟲卵則最小。
在肉眼及病理病徵方面,發現旋睪科住血吸蟲感染主要會導致台灣地區海龜的心血管疾病,其中,spirorchiids吸蟲(如Hapalotrema spp.)常見寄生於心臟周圍的動脈管中,導致血管炎或血栓及動脈瘤的形成;spirorchiids蟲卵則可在各主要組織器官中發現,其中尤以脾臟最為常見;蟲卵的存在常伴隨有血管炎及血管肥厚,並於組織中導致不同程度的肉芽腫炎症反應,為spirorchiidiasis最主要的病理特徵,研究中也發現type III蟲卵可能較易蓄積在血管末梢,並在腸道或腦部表面形成肉眼可見的黑色隆起。此外,研究中擱淺海龜的心肌炎比例很高,推測其原因可能為病毒感染導致,但本研究認為並無法完全排除spirorchiidiasis與心肌炎的相關性。
由擱淺海龜的營養狀態來看,感染旋睪科住血吸蟲的海龜多為消瘦(C3)的海龜,且感染的綠蠵龜會隨著脾臟內蟲卵負荷量增加,而有體重減少的趨勢,且旋睪科住血吸蟲感染影響程度高(SIF3)的海龜中有較多營養狀況較差的個體,其受spirorchiidasis影響的器官數也越多;而4隻感染影響程度最高(SIF 3)的海龜均為未成熟的青少龜,推測可能與其免疫力不健全有關,因此年齡雖不是影響近海棲息海龜感染率的重要因素,但未成熟的海龜卻可能因免疫力較低,而出現較嚴重的spirorchiidasis。最後,本研究評估在43隻海龜(38隻綠蠵龜)中,有4.6%的海龜(5.2%的綠蠵龜)死因應為嚴重的spirorchiidasis所導致的,另有13.9%的海龜(15.8%的綠蠵龜)死因可能與spirorchiidasis有關,但其餘82%的海龜(78.9%的綠蠵龜)死因則與spirorchiidasis無關。

Spirorchiidae fulkes are the common parasites of sea turtles, and act as an important agent that causes the stranding and mortality worldwide. There are many standing alive or dead marine turtles occurralong the coasts of Taiwan. According to the previous studies, about 70% stranded green turtles were infected with spirorchiidiasis, and may cause the death of some turtles. In this study,we collected 73 sea turtles, including 1 leatherback turtle, 4 loggerhead turtles, 7 hawksbill turtles and 61 green turtles. The prevalence of spirororchiidae flukes infection was 65.7%(48/73) of all stranded sea turtles in Taiwan; 75.4%(46/61) of green tutles, and 28.6% (2/7)of hawksbill turtles, none was found in loggerhead and leatherback turtles. According to the result of this study, 5 species belongs to 3 genous of spirorchiidae flukes were found from 23 sea turtles(22 green turtles and 1 hawksbill turtle), they are Leardius learedi, Hapalotrema mehrai, H. postorchis, H. mistroides and Carettacola hawaiiensis. Only H. mistroides was found in hawksbill turtle, the others were found in green turtles. To our knowledge, H. mistroides is the first record in hawksbill turtle, and C. hawaiiensis was also the first record outside the Hawaiian green turtles population. We also found three types of spirorchiids egg in this study, among them, type I egg was the largest and most common ones, type II eggs were the rarely occurred type, and type III was the smallest one.
Cardiovascular disease was mainly caused by Spirorchiidae flukes infection in sea turtles of Taiwan. Theses flukes were found mainly in the artery around the heart, and cause vasculitis or thrombosis and form the aneurysm. Spirorchiidae eggs can be found in the major tissues and organs, especially in the spleen, and may cause vasvulitis and granulomatous. We also found that type III egg may easier accumulate in peripheral vasculars, and formed visible black spot in the surface of intestine or brain.
For the nutritional status of stranded turtles, more weak(C3) ones can be found in the infected turtles, and splenic egg burden increased with the loss of body weight. Highest degree of Spirorchiidae infection(SIF3)can be found in weaker turtles and the ones with more organs infested with spirorchiidasis . The four juvenile green turtles with the highest degree of Spirorchiidae infection were believed to related to their poor immune system. Although age might not be an important factor of prevalence of Spirorchiidae infection in sea turtles, it might acts as an important factor for the immunoreactions to against the Spirorchiidae infection. Finally, this study assessed that spirochiidasis may be responsible for the death of 4.6% turtles (5.2% in green turtles) , and may contributory to the death of another 13.4% turtles (15.8% in green turtle). The death of remaining 82% of the sea turtles (78.9% of the green turtles) was not caused by spirorchiidasis.

摘要……………………………………………………………………………………i
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………iii
目次………………………………………………………………………………….v
圖目次……………………………………………………………………………. vii
表目次……………………………………………………………………………….ix
第一章 序論……………………………………………………………………1-1
第一節 海龜的生存壓力與作為環境指標的可行性………………………1-1
第二節 海龜疾病研究歷史與介紹……………………………………………1-2
第三節Spirorchiidae 科吸蟲病…………………………..……………………1-5
第四節 國內的相關研究…………………..…………………………..………1-7
第五節 研究目的……………………..………………………………...………1-8
第二章台灣地區海龜Spirorchiidae科吸蟲及蟲卵之多樣性及形態描述..……2-1
第一節前言……………………………………………………………………2-1
第二節 研究目的……………………………………………………………...2-1
第三節 材料與方法…………………………………………………………...2-2
第四節 結果…………………………………………………............................2-4
第五節 討論…………………………………………………............................2-6
第六節 結論…………………………………………………..........................2-10
第三章台灣地區擱淺死亡海龜spirorchiidiasis之病理特徵……………………3-1
第一節前言……………………………………………………………………3-1
第二節 研究目的……………………………………………………………...3-1
第三節 材料與方法…………………………………………………………...3-2
第四節 結果…………………………………………………............................3-2
第五節 討論…………………………………………………............................3-6
第六節 結論…………………………………………………..........................3-12
第四章台灣地區擱淺海龜Spirorchiidae的感染率與影響…………………4-1
第一節前言……………………………………………………………………4-1
第二節 研究目的……………………………………………………………...4-1
第三節 材料與方法…………………………………………………………...4-2
第四節 結果…………………………………………………............................4-4
第五節 討論…………………………………………………............................4-7
第六節 結論…………………………………………………..........................4-11
第五章 綜合討論……………………………………………..……................5-1
第一節旋睪科(Spirorchiidae)住血吸蟲的分類學研究…………………5-1
第二節各地旋睪科住血吸蟲與海龜spirorchiidasis之相關性……………5-2
第三節 擱淺海龜來看台灣地區海龜的spirorchiidasis………………..……5-3
第四節旋睪科住血吸蟲的感染與治療………………………………..………5-4
第五節營養指標及SIF的參考價值……………..………………………5-5
第六節未來研究方向及建議……………………………………………5-6
第六章 參考文獻………………………………………….……………..…….6-1
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