(34.226.234.102) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/12 10:58
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:張承豪
研究生(外文):Chang, ChengHao
論文名稱:臺灣產被孢毛黴屬 (Mortierella) (Section Hygrophyla and Spinosa) 之分類研究
論文名稱(外文):Taxonomic study of Mortierella (Mortierellales) (Section Hygrophyla and Spinosa) in Taiwan
指導教授:何小曼何小曼引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ho, HsiaoMan
口試委員:簡秋源劉桂郁
口試委員(外文):Chien, ChiuYuanLiou, GueyYuh
口試日期:2013-01-21
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北教育大學
系所名稱:自然科學教育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:被孢毛黴屬中軸不規則的菌絲隔板親緣關係分析
外文關鍵詞:Mortierellacolumellairregular septa in hyphaphylogenetic analysis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:271
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:9
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究的對象是被孢毛黴屬 (Mortierella) 真菌,其分類地位是真菌界(Fungi) 、接合菌門 (Zygomycota) 、被孢毛黴亞門 (Mortierellomycotina) 、被孢毛黴目 (Mortierelales) 、被孢毛黴科 (Mortierellaceae) 、被孢毛黴屬,並以其中之section Hygrophyla及Spinosa為主。其最主要的分離來源為土壤、落葉腐質,堆肥以及糞物中也能分離到。其營養行為有腐生以及寄生,並且廣泛的分布在自然界中許多不同的環境中。 Mortierella 最主要的形態特徵是其孢子囊柄頂端只會有發展未完全的或是缺乏中軸 (columella) ,有不規則的菌絲隔板,而且在孢子囊柄的底部會有膨大的現象。
本研究由台灣各地收集土壤、草食性和囓齒類動物糞物,分離、純化、鑑定被孢毛黴屬真菌種類,鑑定方法除形態特徵外並輔以親源關係分析。從838個土壤樣本以及21個糞物樣本中,分別分離出65個以及7個菌株,以形態特徵鑑定出5個種,為 Mortierella basiparvispora 、 M. gamsii、 M. elongata 、 M. sp. 1 和 Umbelopsis isabellina ,均為台灣新紀錄種,均由土壤分離。其中屬於section Hygrophyla的是M. basiparvispora以及M. elongata,屬於section Spinosa的是M. gamsii。
確定其種類之後純化並抽取其 DNA ,利用聚合酶酵素鏈鎖反應 (PCR) 、gene cloning 及定序,取得核醣體 DNA 之 LSU-D1/D2 domain、 SSU 及 ITS序列。經由生物資訊軟體分析來做出演化親緣關係樹,並且結合形態的資料,藉此確定種類並建立一個台灣地區綜合形態特徵以及親緣關係的檢索表。

The object of this study is Mortierella (section Hygrophyla and Spinosa) ( Mortierellaceae, Mortierelales, Mortierellomycotina, Zygomycota, Fungi). It can be isolated from soil, fallen leaves, compost, and dung. They are ubiquitously saprotrophic or parasitic fungi. The distinctive morphological characters of Mortierella are the irregular septa in hypha, sporangiophore produces only a rudimentary columella or lack it altogether, and swelling at the base.
This study has collected 838 soil samples and 21 hervbivors’ and rodents’ dung samples from Taiwan. Based on morphological character, five species which are mainly section Hygrophyla: Mortierella basiparvispora and M. elongata; section Spinosa: M. gamsii; M. sp. 1, and Umbelopsis isabellina were identified. Among them, only M. capitata was isolated from dung. All of the species above are new records to Taiwan.
Molecular biotechnology including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gene cloning and sequencing were used to obtain the sequence of LSU-D1/D2 domain, SSU sequence and ITS sequence (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2) of ribosome DNA. Taxonomic groups generating from molecular analysis of these gene regions of rDNA are consistent with the groups based on morphological characters. Consequently, based on combined data obtaining from the phylogenetic analysis and morphological characters, a key of the genus Mortierella in Taiwan is constructed.

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
目錄 v
表次 vii
圖次 viii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 分類地位 1
第二節 研究動機 2
第三節 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻探討 4
第一節 分類地位演進以及相關研究 4
第二節 形態特徵 8
第三節 生長特徵 8
第四節 分子親源關係研究 8
第五節 台灣地區被孢毛黴研究現況 10
第三章 材料與方法 11
第一節 菌株分離來源 11
第二節 分離方法與菌株培養 11
第三節 菌株觀察形態 12
第四節 菌種形態鑑定 13
第五節 Slide culture的製作 13
第六節 分子生物技術研究方法 14
第四章 結果 19
第一節 菌種收集 19
第二節 菌種及描述 19
第三節 以形態結合親緣關係為基礎之檢索表 25
第四節 生物資訊分析 26
第五章 討論 27
第一節 菌種鑑定 27
第二節 分子生物鑑定 31
第六章 結論 32
參考文獻 33
附錄一:Mortierella檢索表 (Zycha and Siepmann, 1969) 68
附錄二:培養菌株用培養基配方 75
附錄三:rDNA片段擴增引子及序列 76
表 1 Mortierella屬菌株種類整理 37
表 2 臺灣各地區樣本分離來源(分離株編號) 42
表 3 臺灣地區菌種分離地點 43
表 4 相似度及遺傳距離分析菌種代號及種名 45
表 5 18S片段相似度及遺傳距離分析 48
表 6 18S片段相似度及遺傳距離分析(種間) 49
表 7 28S片段相似度及遺傳距離分析  50
表 8 28S片段相似度及遺傳距離分析(種間) 51
表 9 ITS片段相似度及遺傳距離分析 52
表 10 ITS片段相似度及遺傳距離分析(種間) 53
表 11 Mortierella屬種內、種間序列差異 54
圖 1 Umbelopsis isabellina光學顯微鏡觀察 55
圖 2 Mortierella basipavispora光學顯微鏡觀察 56
圖 3 Mortierella gamsii光學顯微鏡觀察 57
圖 4 Mortierella elongata光學顯微鏡觀察 58
圖 5 Mortierella sp. 1光學顯微鏡觀察 59
圖 6 Mortierella屬ITS片段 Neighbor-joining method親緣關係樹 60
圖 7 Mortierella屬18S片段 Neighbor-joining method親緣關係樹 61
圖 8 Mortierella屬28S片段 Neighbor-joining method親緣關係樹 62
圖 9 Umbelopsis isabellina分支情形 63
圖10 Mortierella basipavispora分支情形 64
圖11 Mortierella gamsii分支情形 65
圖12 Mortierella elongata分支情形 66
圖13 Mortierella sp. 1分支情形 67

王也珍、吳聲華、周文能、張東柱、陳桂玉、陳淑芬、陳城箖、曾顯雄、劉錦惠、謝文瑞、謝煥儒、鍾兆玄和簡秋源(1999)。台灣真菌名錄。台灣:行政院農委會。
Antonella A., Varese G. C., and Marchisio V. F. (2005). Isolation and identification of fungal communities in compost and vermicompost. Mycologia, 97(1), 33-44.
Arx J. A. von (1984). On Mucoraceae s. str. and other families of the Mucorales. Syndowia, 35, 10-26.
Berbee M. L. and Taylor J. W. (1992). Detecting morphological convergence in true fungi, using 18S rDNA gene sequence data. Biosystems, 28, 117-125.
Cavalier-smith T. (1998). A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological reviews, 73, 203-266.
Chien C. Y., Kuhlman E. G., and Gams W. (1974). Zygospores in two Mortierella species with stylospores. Mycologia, 66(1), 114-121.
Degawa Y., and Gams W. (2004). A new species of Mortierella, and an associated sporangiiferous mycoparasite in a new genus, Nothadelphia. Studies in Mycology, 50, 567-572.
Degawa Y., and Tokumasu S. (1997). Zygospore formation in Mortierella capitata. Mycoscience, 38, 387-394.
Degawa Y., and Tokumasu S. (1998). Zygospore formation in Mortierella umbellata. Mycological Research, 102(5), 593-598.
Degawa Y., and Tokumasu S. (1998). Two new homothallic species of Mortierella, M. cogitans, and M. microzygospora, and their zygpspore formation. Mycologia, 90 (6), 1040-1046.
Embree R. W. (1963). Observations on Mortierella vesiculosa. Trasaction British Mycological Society, 46(4), 560-564.
Evans E. H. (1971). Studies on Mortierella ramanniana. I. Relationship between morphology and cultural behaviour of certain isolates. Trasaction British Mycological Society, 56(2), 201-206.
Evans E. H. (1972). Studies on Mortierella ramanniana. II. Aspects of the ecology of two varieties. Trasaction British Mycological Society, 58(2), 197-203.
Gams W., Chien C. Y., and Domsch K. H. (1972). Zygospore formation by the heterothallic Mortierella elongata and a related homothallic species, M. epigama sp. nov. Trasaction British Mycological Society, 58(1), 5-13.
Gams W. (1976). Some now or noteworthy species of Mortierella. Persoonia, 9(1), 111–140.
Gams W. (1977). A key to the species of Mortierella. Persoonia, 9(3), 381–391.
Gams W., van der Aa H. A., van der Plaats-Niterink A. J., Samson R. A., and Stalpers J. A. (1987). CBS COURSE OF MYCOLOGY. Netherland : Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.
Hoffmann K., Voigt K., and Kirk P. M. (2011). Mortierellomycotina subphyl. Nov. Based on multi-gene genealogies. Mycotaxon, 155, 353-363.
Ho S. Y., and Chen F. (2008). Genetic characterization of Mortierella alpina by sequencing the 18S-28S ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. The society for applied microbiology, letters in applied microbiology, 47, 250-255.
Kwasna H., E. Ward, and Bateman G. L. (2006). Phylogenetic relationships among Zygomycetes from soil based on ITS1/2 rDNA sequence. Mycological research, 110, 501-510.
Meyer W. and Gams W. 2003. Delimitation of Umbelopsis (Mucorales, Umbelopsidaceae fam. Nov.) based on ITS and RFLP data. Mycological Research, 107(3), 339–350.
Mundey JS and Wolfe AG (2010). Disseminated Mortierella wolfii infection in a neonatal calf. New Zealand Verterinary Journal, 58(1), 62–63.
O’Dnnell K. (1993). Fusarium and its near relatives. In Reynolds D. R. and Taylor J. W.. The fungal holomorph: mitotic, meiotic and pleomorphic speciation in fungal systematics.Wallingford, England: CAB International.
O’Dnnell K., Cigelnik E. and Benny G. L. (1998). Phylogenetic relationships among the Harpellales and Kickxellales. Mycologia, 90, 624-639.
Papanikolaou S., Komaitis M., and Aggelis G. (2004). Single cell oil (SCO) production by Mortierella isabellina grown on high-sugar content media. Bioresource Technology, 95, 287-291.
Tamura K., Peterson D., Peterson N., Stecher G., Nei M. and Kumar S. (2011). MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28(10), 2731-2739.
Tanabe Y., Saikawa M., Watanabe M. M., and Sugiyama J. (2004). Molecular phylogeny of Zygomycota based on EF-1α and RPB1 sequences: limitations and utility of alternative markers to rDNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 30, 438-449.
Thompson J. D., Higgins D. G. and Gibson T. J. (1994). CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research, 22, 4673–4680.
Tortora G. J.,Funke B. R. and Case C. L. (2007). Microbiology an introduction. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings.
Turner M. (1963). Studies in the genus Mortierella. Trasaction British Mycological Society, 46(2), 262–272.
Watanabe T. (1977). A new species of Umbelopsis from strawberry roots. Transaction of Mycological Society of Japan, 18. 242-244.
Weber R. and Webster J. (2007). Introduction to Fungi. New York, NY : Cambridge.
White T. J., Bruns T. D., Lee S. B. and Taylor J. W. (1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In Innis M. A., Gelfand D. H., Sninsky J. J. and White T. J.. PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
Yan Z. H., Rogers S. O. and Wang C. J. K. (1995). Assessment of Phialophora species based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer and morphology. Mycologia, 87, 72-83.
Yu A. Q., Zhu J. C., Zhang B., Xing L. J. and Li M. (2011). Effects of Different Carbon Sources on the Growth, Fatty Acid Production, and Expression of Three Desaturase Genes of Mortierella alpina ATCC 16266. Curr Microbiol, 62, 1617–1622.
Zycha H. and Siepmann R. (1969). Mucorales. Germany : von J. Cramer.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔