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研究生:陳筱婷
研究生(外文):Chen, Hsiao-Ting
論文名稱:可能自我在青少年良師與生涯成熟間的中介效果
論文名稱(外文):The Mediating Effect of Possible Selves between Adolescent Mentoring and Career Maturity
指導教授:李宜玫博士
指導教授(外文):Lee, Yi–Mei, Ph. D.
口試委員:毛國楠博士王玉珍博士
口試委員(外文):Mao, Kuo-Nan, Ph. D.Wang, Yu-Jen, Ph. D.
口試日期:2013-01-09
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北教育大學
系所名稱:心理與諮商學系碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:140
中文關鍵詞:可能自我生涯發展生涯成熟度良師
外文關鍵詞:Career developmentCareer maturityMentoringPossible selves
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本研究目的在探討可能自我在青少年良師與生涯成熟間的中介效果,並且瞭解有無良師及不同性別青少年在可能自我與生涯成熟度之差異。本研究採取問卷調查法,參考相關研究量表後自編研究工具為:「良師量表」、「可能自我量表」和「生涯成熟度量表」。選取臺北市及基隆市12所國中的九年級學生共337人(男生183人、女生154人)。蒐集的資料主要採用階層迴歸分析法以驗證中介效果。茲將主要結果呈現如下:
一、多數青少年都擁有良師,良師角色以「父母」最多,其次是「學校老師」,第三為「家教(補習班)老師」。青少年的良師皆能提供角色楷模、社會支持與職涯功能,其中以角色楷模與社會支持功能為最多。
二、有良師的青少年在學業職業希望我「可能性評估」、「效能感評估」與「內控信念」顯著高於無良師的青少年。
三、有良師的青少年在生涯成熟之「生涯探索」、「生涯決定」與「生涯行動」上顯著高於無良師的青少年。
四、不同「性別」的青少年在「分類可能自我」上有顯著差異。而男生在學業職業希望我「外控信念」評估及生涯成熟之「生涯感受」上顯著高於女生;女生在生涯成熟之「生涯信念」與「生涯決定」上顯著高於男生。
五、可能自我在青少年良師與生涯成熟之「生涯決定」間有完全中介效果;可能自我在青少年良師與生涯成熟之「生涯行動」間有部份中介效果。

最後,根據上述研究結果提出對未來的建議。從可能自我在青少年良師與生涯成熟間具有部份中介效果來看,可能自我是值得在未來更廣泛及深入探討的變項。將此結果應用在教育輔導與諮商上,可以幫助學生擁有良師,並強化父母等良師的職涯與社會支持功能以激發青少年的正向可能自我。
The purpose of this study is to explore the mediating effect of possible selves between adolescent mentoring and career maturity, and to understand the influences of mentor and gender on adolescent possible selves and career maturity. This research adopted the questionnaire survey and, established the research instruments included: “The Mentoring Scales”, “The Possible Selves Scales” and “The Career Maturity Scales”. The samples included 337 9th graders (included 183 boys and 154 girls) in 12 junior high schools. The hierarchical regression analysis was used to analyze mediating effects. The main findings of this study are:
1.There are many adolescents had a mentor. The most of mentor of most adolescents is “parents”; then, “school teachers”, and “tutors or cram school’s teachers”, respectively. Mentors provide more role modeling function, and social support function than vocational-career functions.
2.For academic and vocational hope selves, adolescents who had at least one mentor in their life have higher possibility, efficacy and internal control than who had not.
3.For career maturity, adolescents who had at least one mentor in their life have higher of career exploration, career decision and career behavior than who had not.
4.There are gender differences on possible selves’ categories. Besides, boys have higher academic and vocational hope selves of “external control” and career maturity of “career feeling” than girls. In contrast, girls have higher career belief and career decision than boys.
5.There is mediating effect of possible selves between adolescent mentoring and career decision. There is partial mediating effect of possible selves between adolescent mentoring and career behavior.

Some suggestions were given for further applications and studies. Because of the result of partial mediating effect of possible selves between adolescent mentoring and career maturity, the possible selves should be explored in the future. These results can be applied in education and counseling. Teachers and counselors can assist students to have mentors, and to enhance mentors’ functions and, motivate adolescent positive possible selves.

目次
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究問題 4
第三節 名詞解釋 4
第二章 文獻探討 7
第一節 可能自我 7
第二節 良師理論 18
第三節 生涯發展與生涯成熟 24
第四節 青少年的良師、可能自我與生涯成熟度的關係 34
第三章 研究方法 43
第一節 研究架構 43
第二節 研究假設 44
第三節 研究對象 45
第四節 研究工具 46
第五節 研究程序 62
第六節 資料分析方法 63
第四章 研究結果與討論 65
第一節 青少年良師、可能自我與生涯成熟度現況及差異分析 65
第二節 不同性別在可能自我及生涯成熟度之差異分析 76
第三節 可能自我在青少年良師與生涯成熟間之中介效果分析 84
第五章 結論與建議 105
第一節 結論 105
第二節 建議 112
參考文獻 117

附錄
附錄一 預試量表 127
附錄二 正式量表 135

表次
表3-1  預試樣本抽取情形 45
表3-2  抽樣學校規模及樣本數統計表 46
表3-3  「良師量表」項目分析 48
表3-4  「良師量表」KMO與Bartlett球形檢定 48
表3-5  「良師量表」因素分析結果表 49
表3-6  「良師量表」因素相關矩陣 49
表3-7  「良師量表」內部一致性係數 50
表3-8  「可能自我」數量分析表 51
表3-9  「可能自我」類型次數分配表 52
表3-10 「可能自我」編碼分類系統 53
表3-11 「學業職業希望我」項目分析 54
表3-12 「學業職業希望我」KMO與Bartlett球形檢定 54
表3-13 「學業職業希望我」因素分析結果表 55
表3-14 「學業職業希望我」因素相關矩陣 55
表3-15 「學業職業希望我」內部一致性係數 55
表3-16 「生涯成熟度量表」KMO與Bartlett球形檢定 57
表3-17 「生涯態度分量表」因素分析結果表 58
表3-18 「生涯態度分量表」因素相關矩陣 58
表3-19 「生涯行動分量表」因素分析結果表 60
表3-20 「生涯行動分量表」因素相關矩陣 60
表3-21 「生涯成熟度量表」內部一致性係數 61
表3-22 生涯成熟度量表與青少年生涯發展量表相關摘要表 61
表4-1  是否擁有良師之次數分配表 65
表4-2  良師角色之次數分配表 66
表4-3  良師功能之描述統計表 67
表4-4  良師功能之重複量數單因子變異數分析摘要表 67
表4-5  「整體希望我」與有無良師之次數分配及卡方考驗分析表 70
表4-6  「整體害怕我」與有無良師之次數分配及卡方考驗分析表 70
表4-7  平衡可能自我與有無良師之描述統計與t考驗分析表 71
表4-8  學業職業希望我與有無良師之描述統計與t考驗分析表 72
表4-9  生涯成熟度與有無良師之t考驗分析表 75
表4-10 生涯成熟度之重複量數單因子變異數分析 75
表4-11 不同性別在「整體希望我」之次數分配表及卡分考驗分析表 79
表4-12 不同性別在「整體害怕我」之次數分配表及卡分考驗分析表 80
表4-13 不同性別在可能自我、生涯成熟度之t考驗分析表 81
表4-14 良師功能與可能自我的相關分析表 85
表4-15 良師功能與生涯成熟度的相關分析表 85
表4-16 可能自我與生涯成熟度的相關分析表 85
表4-17 良師三功能與可能自我各層面之迴歸分析表 87
表4-18 良師三功能與可能自我各層面之迴歸分析表 87
表4-19 性別、良師功能、可能自我與生涯感受階層迴歸分析表 88
表4-20 性別、良師功能、可能自我與生涯信念階層迴歸分析表 90
表4-21 性別、良師功能、可能自我與生涯探索階層迴歸分析表 92
表4-22 性別、良師功能、可能自我與生涯決定階層迴歸分析表 94
表4-23 性別、良師功能、可能自我與生涯計畫階層迴歸分析表 96
表4-24 良師總功能與可能自我各層面之迴歸分析表 98
表4-25 良師總功能與可能自我各層面之迴歸分析表 98
表4-26 性別、良師功能、可能自我與生涯態度階層迴歸分析表 99
表4-27 性別、良師功能、可能自我與生涯行動階層迴歸分析表 100

圖次
圖2-1  良師方案目標之理論模型 22
圖2-2  Crites的青少年生涯成熟模式 30
圖3-1  研究架構圖 43
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