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研究生:王安民
研究生(外文):Wang, An-Ming
論文名稱:三篇經濟地理之論文:土地消費、土地生產及地方公共財
論文名稱(外文):Three Essays on Economic Geography: Land for Consumption, Land for Production, and Local Public Goods
指導教授:楊重信楊重信引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yang, Chung-Hsin
口試委員:賴孚權劉小蘭蔡智發林楨家
口試委員(外文):Lai, Fu-ChuanLiu, Hsiao-LanTsai, Jyh-FaLin, Jen-Jia
口試日期:2013-05-13
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺北大學
系所名稱:都市計劃研究所
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:都市規劃學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:英文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:新經濟地理聚集與分散土地價格效果地方公共財
外文關鍵詞:new economic geographyagglomeration and dispersionlandprice effectlocal public good
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本論文包含三篇關於經濟地理之文章。第二章(第一篇文章)題目為「空間之聚集與分散:再訪Helpman模型」,呈現一調整的Helpman (1998)模型,增加一可交易的農業財以及將製造業生產函數修改為Forslid and Ottaviano (2003)之設定,以確認該兩區域經濟模型中所有可能之空間結構。這個研究清楚顯示:(1)完全聚集之均衡不存在於此模型中;(2)對稱分配始終為均衡狀態,如同Forslid and Ottaviano (2003)之結果;(3)系統中存在至多兩個關於對稱分配穩定性的貿易自由度內部解,亦即,一個破裂點以及兩個破裂點之結果;(4)當不同製造業財貨間替代彈性足夠大時,分散黑洞存在;(5)隨著貿易自由度逐漸上升,最終必導致空間的穩定分散均衡。此外,第二章亦分解出該模型中四種影響空間結構之效果:市場規模效果、市場擁擠效果、生活成本效果以及都市擁擠效果,並以圖形顯示這些效果或力量如何隨著貿易自由度逐漸上升而產生出各種不同之空間結構。
第三章(第二篇文章)題目為「價格效果對空間結構之影響:再訪新經濟地理模型」,認為大都市之物價指數高於小都市與鄉村地區之物價指數係普遍之經濟現象,而主要原因在於大都市地區需支付較高額之地租成本,但標準核心-邊陲模型之理論結果卻為形成聚集之地區有較低之物價水準。因此,第三章試圖於標準核心-邊陲模型中加入一生產要素:土地,分析地租對物價指數與空間結構之影響。分析結果顯示,當生產對土地依賴大、差異性產品替代/需求彈性高時,核心區域之物價指數會高於邊陲區域,且聚集發生初始階段,物價指數會隨著聚集程度升高而上升,較符合真實世界之經濟現象。然而於此同時,模型中之市場力量不足以內生化產生核心-邊陲之空間結構,顯示物價效果對空間結構具有顯著之重要性。
第四章(第三篇文章)題目為「聚集,租稅,與地方公共財」,探討租稅與地方公共財之互動,檢視其如何影響於新經濟地理架構下之空間結構。在純地方公共財的基礎探討中,儘管租稅縮小了製造業財貨之市場規模,該系統依然呈現與既有新經濟地理之租稅模型類似之結果。然而,當考慮地方公共財具有擁擠性時,可發現一個基於對地方公共財需求而產生的新聚集力量以及一個基於擁擠性而產生的新分散力量,系統中加入兩種力量後的互動結果顯示,擁擠性顯著影響對空間結構之決定。
This dissertation includes three essays on economic geography. Chapter 2 (the first essay) entitled “Spatial Agglomeration and Dispersion: Revisiting the Helpman Model” presents a modified Helpman model (1998) with an added tradable agriculture good, and modifies the manufacturing production function according to Forslid and Ottaviano (2003) to identify all possible spatial configurations of a two-region economy. This study clearly shows that: (1) The full-agglomeration equilibrium does not exist in this model; (2) The symmetric distribution is a persistent equilibrium as Forslid and Ottaviano (2003); (3) There exist at most two interior solutions of trade freeness with respect to stability of the symmetric distribution, i.e. one break point and two break point solutions; (4) Dispersion black hole exists if substitution elasticity between different manufactured goods is sufficiently large; (5) Increase in trade freeness eventually results in an even spatial dispersion. Moreover, the current work neatly separates the four spatial shaping effects: market size effect, market crowding effect, cost of living effect, and urban congestion effect, and diagrammatically exposes how these forces shape spatial configurations as the degree of trade freeness increases.
Chapter 3 (the second essay) entitled “The Price Effect on Spatial Structure: Revisiting the New Economic Geography Model” adds a factor of production, land, to the standard core-periphery model of the New Economic Geography (NEG) to analyze the effect of land rent on the price index and spatial structure. The result indicates that when production of the manufacturing sector has high dependence on land, and high demand elasticity for differentiated goods, the price index of the core region is higher than that of the periphery, and that the price index could rise with a degree of agglomeration. Meanwhile, the market forces cannot generate a core-periphery structure, which indicates the significance of the price effect on spatial structure.
Chapter 4 (the third essay) entitled “Agglomeration, Tax, and Local Public Goods” explores the interaction between taxation and a local public good (LPG) to see how it impacts the spatial pattern in the framework of NEG. In the benchmark case of a pure LPG, the system displays a similar location pattern to the existing NEG taxation model, although the tax reduces the market size of manufactured goods. However, when we consider the inherent congestion of an LPG, we find a new agglomeration force due to the demand of the LPG and a new dispersion force due to its congestion. As a result of their interaction, the congestability is crucial in determining the spatial location pattern.
Acknowledgements
Abstract iii
List of Tables vii
List of Figures ix
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Spatial Agglomeration and Dispersion: Revisiting the Helpman Model 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 The Model 13
2.3 Long-run Spatial Equilibrium 19
2.4 Diagrammatic Exposition of the Effects of Agglomeration and Dispersion Forces 28
2.5 Concluding Remarks 34
Appendixes 36
Chapter 3 The Price Effect on Spatial Structure: Revisiting the New Economic Geography Model 39
3.1 Introduction 39
3.2 The Model 43
3.3 Price Index 53
3.4 Spatial Structure 58
3.5 Conclusions 64
Appendixes 66
Chapter 4 Agglomeration, Tax, and Local Public Goods 73
4.1 Introduction 73
4.2 The model 77
4.3 The benchmark case: A pure local public good (PLPG) 84
4.4 A congestible local public good (CLPG) 92
4.5 Concluding remarks 100
Appendixes 102
Chapter 5 Concluding Remarks 111
References 115
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