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研究生:謝育惠
研究生(外文):Yu-Hui Hsieh
論文名稱:學校可及性對高中學生學習表現之影響─桃園縣之實證分析
論文名稱(外文):School Accessibility Impacts on Senior High School Student Learning Performances:An Empirical Study in Taoyuan
指導教授:林楨家林楨家引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jen-Jia Lin
口試委員:馮正民賴進貴
口試日期:2013-06-05
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:地理環境資源學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:地理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:341
中文關鍵詞:學校可及性學習表現線性迴歸模式負二項迴歸模式Tobit 迴歸模式次序 probit 迴歸模式
外文關鍵詞:School accessibilityLearning performanceLinear regressionNegative binomial regressionTobit regressionOrdered probit regression
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十二年國民基本教育提出高中職社區化,希望吸引學生就近入學,但其學區劃分在不同學校類型上,面臨很大的困難。尤其臺灣社會存在許多跨區就讀「明星」學校,以提升學習表現的現象。故本研究試圖探討學校可及性對高中學生學習表現的影響,以及此影響在不同學校類型之間的差異。本研究以通學旅運時間作為學校可及性變數,並因應教育部將「單程通學旅運時間 45 分鐘以內」為就近入學的說法,將通學旅運時間區分為四個區間類別,試圖找出影響學習表現的通學旅運時間門檻值,以及不同學校類型之間,影響學習表現的通學旅運時間門檻值,作為學區劃分的參考。也希望能釐清地理空間,在高中學生學習表現上的角色,並補足在學術研究上,高中學生學校可及性研究的空白。
本研究以桃園縣為研究空間。經過個案訪談與問卷調查,利用線性迴歸模式、負二項迴歸模式、Tobit 迴歸模式,以及次序 probit 迴歸模式,實證分析學校可及性對高中學生學習表現的影響,並依據實證分析結果,對十二年國民基本教育高中職社區化學區劃分、學校經營策略,以及運輸發展策略提出建議。
研究結果顯示學校可及性對學習表現有負向影響,但對學測級分的負向影響,其統計顯著性會隨通學旅運時間的增加而遞減。公立或「非明星」學校,通學旅運時間在 30 分鐘以內的學生,學業成就較佳;私立或「明星」學校通學旅運時間在 45 分鐘以內的學生,學業成就較佳。「單程通學旅運時間 45 分鐘以內」並不能達到教育部預期「吸引學生就近入學能增進學生學習表現」的目標,應該下修就近入學的通學旅運時間。其他影響學習表現的控制變數,多符合過去研究結果。
依據實證分析結果,對十二年國民基本教育高中職社區化學區劃分、學校經營策略,以及運輸發展策略的建議如下:對公立或「非明星」學校的學生而言,最適合的通學旅運時間門檻值為 30 分鐘以內;對私立或「明星」學校學生而言,最適合的通學旅運時間門檻值不宜超過 45 分鐘。學校應設法增加校車的班次與品質,或者呼籲家長採行共乘的方法,或是設立學生宿舍,減少通學旅運時間。地方政府可補助客運業者開發新的路線,增加尖峰時段的客運班次,在尖峰時段使用高乘載的客運載具;也應調整學校周邊道路使用的管理辦法,例如上學與放學尖峰時段,應加強學校周邊道路交通的疏導,以改善學生通學旅運時間。

The purpose of community- based senior-high schools is to attract students to enroll nearby schools. Taiwanese government trys to plan senior high school catchment areas to decrease travel time to school; however, it is difficult to plan senior high school catchment areas becauce diverse school types exist. To approach promising future, many senior high school students in Taiwan take long travel time to prestigious senior high schools. This study aims at answering the following two questions: Does school accessibility affect learning performances? What’s the differences of effects among students from different school types? This study measures school accessibility by travel time between a student’s residence and school and classifies travel time into four categories according to the policy of “less than 45 minutes to school.” This study tries to figure out travel time thresholds that significantly influence learning performances of different school types to determine suitable catchment areas. The contributions of this study are clarifying the implications of geography on learning performances of senior high school students, and mending the vacancy of school accessibility studies of senior high school students.
The sample data were obtained through case interviews and a questionnaire survey in Taoyuan County. Various econometric methods including linear regression, negative binomial regression, Tobit regression and ordered probit regression were applied to analyze the accessibility effects on learning performances. Based on empirical results, some recommendations were drawn for catchment area planning, school operation policy and transportation system development.
The empirical results show that the school accessibility negatively affects learning performances of senior high school students, but the significances of these negative effects are decreasing when travel time is increasing. The students in public or normal senior high schools who take less than 30 minutes to school perform better acadmic achivements than others do; and, the students in private or prestigious senior high schools who take less than 45 minutes to school perform better acadmic achivements than others do. Therefore, the catchment areas should not be determined by 45 minutes travel time, which is the present government policy. This study also found that the effects of control variables on learning performances of senior high school students are mostly consistent with the previous researches.
According to the empirical results, this study recommends the following strategies for catchment area planning, school operating and transportation: (1) For public or normal senior high schools, their catchment areas should be determined by 30 minutes trvel times; and, for private or prestigious senior high schools, their catchment areas should be determined by 45 minutes travel time (2) The authoritles of senior high schools have to provide frequent and quality services of school bus, promote car-pool and provide dormitories to decrease students’ trvel time to school. (3) Local governments have to subsidise bus operators to open new routes to schools, increase frequency of bus services and serve high capacity vehicles in rush hours. Fuurther more, strong traffic management measures are needed nearby schools in rush hours to release traffic jam and decrease travel time of students.

第一章 前言 - 1 -
第一節 研究動機與目的 - 2 -
第二節 研究範疇 - 5 -
第三節 研究流程與內容 - 10 -
第四節 研究方法 - 12 -
第二章 文獻回顧 - 14 -
第一節 學校可及性 - 15 -
第二節 學習表現 - 21 -
第三節 學校可及性對學習表現的影響 - 34 -
第四節 綜合評析 - 43 -
第三章 研究設計 - 52 -
第一節 課題界定與分析 - 53 -
第二節 假說研提 - 68 -
第三節 驗證方法 - 85 -
第四章 資料調查與分析 - 100 -
第一節 問卷調查與資料蒐集 - 101 -
第二節 敘述統計分析 - 106 -
第三節 相關分析 - 120 -
第五章 實證分析 - 142 -
第一節 模式校估 - 143 -
第二節 假說驗證 - 178 -
第三節 討論與應用 - 195 -
第六章 結論與建議 - 211 -
第一節 結論 - 212 -
第二節 建議 - 217 -
參考文獻 - 221 -
附錄一 個案訪談相關文件與紀錄 - 224 -
附錄二 問卷調查相關文件與內容 - 273 -
附錄三 相關係數表 - 283 -
附錄四 線性迴歸模式校估結果 - 305 -
附錄五 負二項迴歸模式校估結果 - 331 -
附錄六 Tobit 迴歸模式校估結果 - 335 -
附錄七 次序 probit 迴歸模式校估結果 - 339 -
附錄三至七僅附總樣本數之結果,完整附錄內容請見光碟。

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