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研究生:謝幸容
研究生(外文):Hsing-Jung Hsieh
論文名稱:兒童權利公約於東亞之實踐:以締約國國家報告與結論性意見為中心
論文名稱(外文):The Implementation of Convention on the Rights of the Child in East Asia: With a Special Focus on State Parties Reports and Concluding Observations
指導教授:張文貞張文貞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Chen Chang
口試委員:葉俊榮廖福特李立如
口試委員(外文):Jiunn-Rong YehFu-Te LiaoLi-Ju Lee
口試日期:2013-07-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:法律學研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:188
中文關鍵詞:國際人權法兒童權利委員會兒童權利公約國家報告一般性意見結論性意見東亞共同關注議題
外文關鍵詞:International Human RightsCommittee on the Rights of the ChildConvention on the Rights of the ChildState Parties Reportgeneral commentconcluding observationthe common issues of State Parties in East Asia
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兒童權利是20世紀始有之新穎概念,從1924年《日內瓦兒童權利宣言》、1959年《兒童權利宣言》,到1989年《兒童權利公約》通過並於1990年生效施行後,兒童權利之發展在國際人權法上達到最高峰。而在公約運作20餘年之後,《兒童權利公約》在國家、區域或是世界上的實踐狀況及特徵如何,而締約國與兒童權利委員會的互動審查經驗又能為我國帶來如何之啟發便成為本論文主要想要探討的問題。本論文選定東亞國家,包含南韓、日本、中國以及北韓四者作為研究主軸,蓋其皆根基著共同之儒家文化傳統而可能與《兒童權利公約》在兒童權利之實踐上有不一致之處進而形成衝突,甚至進一步形成公約在東亞之實踐特徵。因此本論文從締約國的國家報告以及委員會對於締約國國家報告所作成之結論性意見出發觀察《兒童權利公約》在東亞締約國之實踐狀況、特徵,並進而檢視我國兒童及少年相關法制。

在進入《兒童權利公約》於東亞締約國之實踐之前,本論文首先就兒童權利於國際人權條約上的發展歷史脈絡、《兒童權利公約》成立之沿革以及內涵作一概述性的介紹,緊接著則是論述兒童權利委員會之制度以及運作,並分析出其在締約國國家報告結論性意見中之建議或一般性意見之解釋對於公約之各項權利具有體系化以及細緻化之意義。

再者,本論文從東亞締約國歷來之國家報告以及兒童權利委員會所作成之結論性意見中,歸納出其共同被關注的議題,以一般執行議題以及實體議題作區分,在一般執行議題中發現「國家政策之協調」、「獨立人權監督機制」、「公約之宣傳與人權培訓」是四國所要面對的共同議題;在實體權利議題中,則觀察出五大共同關注議題,包含「弱勢兒童」、「針對兒童之暴力」、「收養」、「少年司法」以及「表達意見權」;此外,本論文除了觀察東亞四國之共同關注議題,更進一步以國家的發展程度作區分,進一步歸納出不同之兒童個別實體權利議題。而在歸納出東亞締約國之共同關注議題之後,本論文再由東亞共同關注議題出發,歸納出《兒童權利公約》於東亞締約國之實踐特徵。

最後,本論文將視野拉回我國,首先先說明《兒童權利公約》於我國之現狀,再者說明我國兒童及少年人權法制之發展,接著藉由兒童權利委員會對於前述東亞締約國共同關注議題以及個別實體權利議題所作成的結論性意見建議為基礎檢視我國兒童相關法制是否符合兒童權利委員會之期待。


Children’s rights is a novel concept in the twentieth century. From Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child in 1924, United Declaration of the Rights of the Child in 1959 to Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter “the Convention”) which was adopted in 1989 and came into force in 1990, the development of children’s rights has peaked among the international human rights laws. Given that the Convention has come into force for more than twenty years, this thesis will focus on the features of the Convention and its implementation, with expectation that the experience of the State Parties and the Committee on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter “the Committee”) shall serve as an inspiration for Taiwan. The comparative study will be conducted in East Asia, which includes Republic of Korea, Japan, China and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, because these countries and Taiwan share similarity in Confucianism tradition and may be in conflict with the Convention. Accordingly, this thesis will begin with the State Parties Reports submitted by these East Asian countries as well as the concluding observations made by the Committee, in order to analyze the features of the Convention and its implementation in East Asia. Finally, based on such State Parties Reports and the concluding observations, this thesis will examine our domestic legislations concerning children.

Firstly, this thesis will introduce the historical development of children’s rights in international human rights treaties, the conclusion of the Convention and its contents. Besides, this thesis will discuss the institution and operations of the Committee and analyze its role in interpreting the Convention.

Secondly, by looking into the State Parties Reports and the concluding observations, this thesis concludes the common issues which have drawn much attention. The common issues can be divided into two categories: “General measures of implementation issues” and “Substantial rights issues”. This thesis concludes that the general measures of implementation issues include “National Plan of Action and Coordination”, “Independent monitoring institutions”, and “Dissemination of Convention and Training for professionals”, and the substantial rights issues cover “Minority children”, “Violence toward Children ”, “Adoption”, “Juvenile justice” and “The right of express views”. In addition, this thesis categorizes the State Parties in East Asia by referring to the Human Development Index and concludes separate substantial rights issues. Last but not least, by analyzing the common issues of State Parties in East Asia, this thesis points out the current implementation features of Convention on the rights of the Children in East Asia.

The last part of this thesis will explore the legal framework of children’s rights in Taiwan. First of all, it introduces the current status of the Convention in Taiwan. Then, it reviews the development of our domestic legislations concerning children. Finally, by referring to the suggestions on common issues made in the concluding observations provided by the Committee, this thesis examines whether our domestic legislations meet the standard of the Convention.


1. 緒論 1
1.1研究動機 2
1.2 研究方法與範圍 5
1.3 研究限制 7
1.4 論文架構 9
1.5名詞界定 10
2. 兒童權利公約之內涵與運作機制 12
2.1 兒童權利於國際人權條約之規定 12
2.1.1 世界人權宣言 13
2.1.2 公民與政治權利國際公約 14
2.1.3 經濟社會文化權利國際公約 16
2.1.4 消除對婦女一切形式歧視公約 20
2.1.5 國際人權條約與兒童權利保障之侷限性 22
2.2 兒童權利公約成立之沿革 25
2.2.1 日內瓦兒童權利宣言 26
2.2.2 兒童權利宣言 27
2.2.3 兒童權利公約之制定 29
2.2.4 小結 31
2.3 兒童權利公約之基本內容 31
2.3.1 四大基本原則 32
2.3.2 三大權利體系 34
2.3.3 三號任擇議定書 36
2.3.3.1 關於兒童涉入軍事衝突任擇議定書 36
2.3.3.2 關於童妓與兒童色情出版品任擇議定書 37
2.3.3.3 關於個人申訴程序的任擇議定書 38
2.3.4 小結 39
2.4 兒童權利委員會之組織及運作 41
2.4.1 委員會之成員及選任方式 41
2.4.2 委員會之運作 43
2.4.2.1 正式會議 43
2.4.2.2 一般性討論 44
2.4.2.3 非正式區域會議 45
2.5 兒童權利委員會之職權 46
2.5.1 審查國家報告 46
2.5.1.1 國家報告繳交 46
2.5.1.2 審查過程 49
2.5.1.2.1 審前工作會議 49
2.5.1.2.2 正式審查 50
2.5.1.2.3 結論性意見 51
2.5.2 一般性意見 53
2.5.3 接受個人申訴 55
2.5.4 委員會之解釋功能 56
2.5.4.1 公約內涵之體系化 57
2.5.4.2 公約內涵之細緻化 57
2.6 本章結論 60
3. 兒童權利公約於東亞之實踐 62
3.1 各國之簽署狀況 62
3.2 締約國國家報告繳交情形 65
3.2.1 日本 65
3.2.2 南韓 66
3.2.3 中國 67
3.2.4 北韓 68
3.3 締約國之共同關注議題 69
3.3.1 一般執行議題 70
3.3.1.1 國家計畫之協調 70
3.3.1.2 獨立人權監督機制 73
3.3.1.3 公約宣傳與人員培訓 75
3.3.2 實體權利議題 77
3.3.2.1 弱勢兒童 77
3.3.2.1.1 無父母照顧之兒童 78
3.3.2.1.2 女童 80
3.3.2.2針對兒童之暴力 82
3.3.2.2.1 體罰 82
3.3.2.2.2 虐待與疏忽 85
3.3.2.2.3 性剝削 88
3.3.2.3 少年司法 91
3.3.2.4 收養 94
3.3.2.5 表達意見權 97
3.3.3兒童權利公約於東亞之實踐特徵-文化影響 100
3.3.3.1 儒家傳統與兒童地位 101
3.3.3.1.1 家長主義的中心思想 101
3.3.3.1.2 成就取向之教育目的 104
3.3.3.2 公約實踐與儒家傳統之交鋒 106
3.3.3.2.1 體罰禁止之選擇性實踐 107
3.3.3.2.2 表達意見權之落實困難 110
3.4東亞個別實體權利議題-以發展程度區分 114
3.4.1 已開發國家-日本及南韓 115
3.4.1.1 非本國籍兒童之出生登記 115
3.4.1.2 難民及尋求庇護兒童 116
3.4.1.3教育競爭性 117
3.4.2 開發中國家-中國及北韓 118
3.4.2.1 營養不良 119
3.4.2.2 街頭兒童 120
3.4.2.3 教育品質與資源 121
3.4.3 小結 122
3.5 本章結論 123
4. 兒童權利公約與台灣實踐 124
4.1 兒童權利公約於我國之現況與兒童人權報告 124
4.1.1 兒童權利公約於我國之現況 124
4.1.2 我國兒童人權相關報告 126
4.1.2.1 兒童人權報告書 126
4.1.2.2 台灣兒童人權評估-以聯合國兒童權利公約為導向 127
4.1.2.3 台灣兒童人權指標調查報告 128
4.1.2.4 小結 129
4.2 我國兒童及少年人權法制之發展 129
4.2.1 兒少福利建置期 130
4.2.2 兒少福利成長期 130
4.2.3 權利導向納入期 131
4.3 依東亞締約國之結論性意見檢視我國兒童及少年相關法制 133
4.3.1 一般執行議題 133
4.3.1.1 國家計劃之協調 134
4.3.1.2 獨立人權監督機制 134
4.3.1.3 公約宣傳與人員培訓 136
4.3.1.4 小結 137
4.3.2 實體權利議題 137
4.3.2.1 弱勢兒童 138
4.3.2.1.1 無父母照顧兒童 138
4.3.2.1.2 女童 139
4.3.2.2針對兒童之暴力 140
4.3.2.2.1 體罰 140
4.3.2.2.2 虐待及疏忽 143
4.3.2.2.3 性剝削 146
4.3.2.3 收養 147
4.3.2.4 少年司法 150
4.3.2.5 表達意見權 156
4.3.2.6 小結 159
4.3.3兒童權利公約於東亞之實踐特徵與台灣經驗 160
4.4 依南韓及日本之結論性意見檢視我國兒童及少年相關法制 161
4.4.1 非本國籍兒童之出生登記 162
4.4.2 難民及尋求庇護兒童 164
4.4.3教育競爭性 165
4.4.4 小結 166
4.5 本章結論 167
5. 結論 169
參考文獻 172



一、中文專書(依姓氏筆畫排序)
沈之奇(2000),《大清律輯注》(下)。北京:法律出版社。
周麗端、唐先梅、曾敏傑(2002),《台灣兒童人權評估-以聯合國兒童權利公約為導向》。台北:罕見疾病基金會。
郭靜晃(2004),《兒童少年福利與服務》。台北:揚智文化。
陳惠馨(2006),《傳統個人、家庭、婚姻與國家-中國法制史的研究與方法》。台北:五南。
彭淑華、鄭善明、蔡惠洳、賴宏昇、林廷華、林蕙娟、範書菁、賴月蜜、歐姿秀(2010),《兒童福利-理論與實務》。臺北:華都文化。
彭淑華(2012),《2012台灣兒童人權指標調查報告》。台北:社團法人中華人權協會。
黃光國(1988),《儒家思想與東亞現代化》。台北:巨流。
廖福特(2005),《國際人權法-議題分析與國內實踐》。台北:元照出版。

二、期刊與專書、研討會論文(依姓氏筆畫排序)
王舒芸(2008),〈從兒童權利公約到適合兒童生長的世界及後五年宣言〉,《社區發展季刊》,123期,頁6-33。
李立如(2003),〈法不入家門?家事法演變的法律社會學分析〉,《中原財經法學》, 10期,頁42-83。
李仁淼(2007),〈兒童人權與體罰禁止之法理〉,《月旦法學教室》,53期,頁6-7。
李孟玢(1998),〈論世界人權宣言之基本性質與法律效力〉,《國立中正大學法學集刊》,1期,頁333-361。
李念祖(2012),〈論依巴黎原則於監察院設置國家人權委員會〉,《台灣人權學刊》,1卷3期,頁125-143。
宋峻杰(2012),〈兒童人權與婚姻暴力之交鋒—以日本法為主軸思考〉,《國立中正大學法學集刊》,37期,頁1-50。
施慧玲(1999),〈論我國兒童少年性剝削防治立法-以兒童少年福利保護爲中心理念之法律社會學觀點〉,《國立中正大學法學集刊》,2期,頁45-76。
施慧玲(2004),〈論我國兒童人權法制之發展-兼談落實聯合國兒童權利公約之社會運動〉,《國立中正大學法學集刊》,14期,頁169-204。
夏吟蘭(2011),〈中國婦女人權之發展與反家暴立法〉,發表於《東亞比較法律與社會:婚姻暴力及婦女兒童人權國際學術研討會》,國立中正大學法學院及法律學系、中原大學法學院、政治大學法學院與高雄大學法學院(主辦),嘉義。
黃默(2003),〈台灣「國家人權委員會」的倡導、爭論與展望:一個非政府組織的觀點〉,《全國律師》, 7期,頁4-10。
彭淑華(2011),〈台灣兒童及少年福利政策與法令制度之發展〉,發表於《社會福利模式–從傳承到創新研討會》,中華救助總會與財團法人中華文化社會福利事業基金會與大陸中國社會科學院(主辦),北京。
張文貞(2010),〈國際人權法與內國憲法的匯流:台灣施行兩大人權公約之後〉,收於:王世榕(編),《台灣法學新課題(八)》,頁2-26。台北:元照。
張文貞(2012),〈演進中的法-一般性意見作為國際人權公約的權威解釋〉,《台灣人權學刊》,1卷2期,頁25-43。
馮燕、李宏文、謝文元(2011),〈建國百年來兒童及少年福利的回顧與前瞻〉,《社區發展季刊》,133期,頁309-327。
雷文玫(2003),〈國家、父母與兒童少年權益間的拉鋸〉,《月旦法學雜誌》, 102期,頁116-127。
廖福特(2011),〈法院應否及如何適用《經濟社會文化權利國際公約》〉,《台灣人權學刊》,1卷1期,頁3-28。
廖福特(2007),〈國際人權法:第二講 最具普世性的三個人權條約─種族、婦女及兒童〉,《月旦法學教室》,56期,頁56-69。
鄧學仁(2013),〈子女福利與親權法的課題〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,216期,頁102-118。
謝靜慧(2010),〈公民權利和政治權利公約暨經濟社會文化權利公約下之兒童及少年人權─以法官保留原則與專業法庭(院)之運作現況為中心〉,收於:王世榕(編),《台灣法學新課題(八)》,頁101-150。台北:元照。

三、學位論文(依姓氏筆畫排序)
林宜樺(2007),《受虐子女權利與親權制度》,國立台北大學法律研究所碩士論文(未出版),新北。
洪彗玲(2012),《人權事務委員會之功能演進:以其與東亞締約國之互動為中心》,國立台灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文(未出版),台北。
楊必嘉(2008),《未成年子女權益之保護》,輔仁大學法律研究所碩士論文(未出版),新北。
蔡顯鑫(2002),《子女權利與親權制度》,輔仁大學法律學研究所博士論文(未出版),新北。

四、司法院大法官解釋(依年度排序)
司法院大法官解釋釋字第664號解釋。
司法院大法官解釋釋字第684號解釋。
司法院大法官解釋釋字第708號解釋。
司法院大法官解釋釋字第710號解釋。

五、其他
中華民國初次人權報告國際審查會議結論性意見發表會紀錄,載於http://www.humanrights.moj.gov.tw/public/Attachment/3521132614.pdf。
監察院(2012),《1000800367調查報告》,載於http://humanrights.cy.gov.tw/sp.asp?xdUrl=./di/edoc/eDocForm_Read.asp&ctNode=1783&AP_Code=eDoc&Func_Code=t01&case_id=101000453。
行政院(2011),《國情統計通報》,載於http://www.dgbas.gov.tw.
《公民與政治權利國際公約》執行情形,簽約國根據《公約》第40條提交的初次報告,載於法務部人權大步走專區,http://www.humanrights.moj.gov.tw/public/Attachment/21049583257.pdf。
《經濟社會文化權利國際公約》執行情形:簽約國根據《公約》第16條及第17條提交的初次報告,載於法務部人權大步走專區,http://www.humanrights.moj.gov.tw/public/Attachment/21041011187.pdf.
財團法人台灣兒童暨家庭扶助基金會(2012),《台灣 NGO 兩公約影子報告》,載於http://www.ccf.org.tw/new/advocacy/NGO.pdf。
對中華民國(臺灣)政府落實國際人權公約初次報告之審查國際獨立專家通過的結論性意見與建議,載於法務部人權大步走專區http://www.humanrights.moj.gov.tw/public/Attachment/341611295471.pdf。
中華民國初次人權報告國際審查會議結論性意見發表會中文紀錄,載於法務部人權大步走專區http://www.humanrights.moj.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=304005&ctNode=32964&mp=200。
102年度司法人員研習業務計畫書。載於http://tpi.judicial.gov.tw/modules/tpi/。
施慧玲、高玉泉(2001),〈我國踐行聯合國兒童權利公約規劃方案成果報告〉,內政部兒童局委託研究。

六、聯合國官方文獻(依年度排序)
U.N. Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 17: Rights of the Child, (art.24)(Apr.7, 1989).
U.N. Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 18: Non-discrimination, (Nov.10, 1989).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General guidelines regarding the form and content of initial reports to be submitted by States Parties under article 44, paragraph 1(a), of the Convention, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/5 (Oct.30, 1991).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 4: The Right to Adequate Housing (Art. 11), U.N. Doc. E/1992/23 (Dec.13, 1991).
U.N. Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 20: Prohibition of Torture, or Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment(art.7), (Mar.10, 1992).
U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendations No. 19: Violence against Waman, U.N. Doc. A/47/38 (1993).
U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 21: Equality in marriage and family relations, U.N. Doc. A/49/38 (1994).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Initial reports of state parties: Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/8/Add.21(Nov. 30,1994).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 5: Persons with Disabilities, U.N. Doc. E/1995/22 (Dec.9, 1994).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Initial Report of State Parties: China, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/11/Add.7(Aug.21,1995).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.51 (Feb.13,1996).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Initial reports of State parties: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/3/Add.41 (Jun. 17,1996).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: China, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.56 (Jul.6,1996).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Initial reports of state parties : Japan, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/41/Add.1(Aug. 5 , 1996).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General guidelines for periodic reports, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/58(Nov. 20, 1996).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 7: The right to adequate housing (Art.11), U.N. Doc. E/1998/22 (May.20, 1997).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 8: The relationship between economic sanctions and respect for economic, social and cultural rights, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/1997/8 (Dec.12, 1997).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Japan, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.90 (Jun.24, 1998).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.88 (Jun. 24, 1998).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 12: The Right to Adequate Food (Art. 11), (May.12, 1999).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Report on the 22th Sess., U.N. Doc. CRC/C/90, (Dec. 7, 1999).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 13: The Right to Education (Art. 13), U.N. Doc. E/C.12/1999/10 (Dec. 8, 1999)
U.N Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 11: Plans of Action for Primary Education (Art. 14), U.N. Doc. E/1992/23 (Dec. 8, 1999).
U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 24: Woman and Health (Art.12), U.N. Doc. A/54/38/Rev.1 (1999).
U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 15: Avoidance of Discrimination against Women in National Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), U.N. Doc. A/45/38 (1999).
U.N. Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 28: The Equality of Rights between Men and Women (art.3), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.10 (Mar.29, 2000).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 14: The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (Art. 12), U.N. Doc. E/C.12/2000/4 (Aug.11, 2000).
Optional protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, G.A. Res. 54/263, Annex I, U.N. Doc. A/RES/54/263/Annex I (May. 25, 2001).
Optional protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, G.A. Res. 54/263, Annex II, U.N. Doc. A/RES/54/263/Annex II (May. 25, 2001).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Guidelines regarding initial reports of States Parties to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, U.N. Doc. CRC/OP/AC/1(Oct.12, 2001).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Guidelines regarding initial reports to be submitted by States Parties under article 12(1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, U.N. Doc. CRC/OP/SA/1(Apr.4, 2002)
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommandation on the organization of work, 30th Sess., U.N. Doc. CRC/C/118, (May.7, 2002).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Periodic reports of States parties: Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/70/Add.14 (Jun. 26,2002).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 2: The Role of Independent National Human Rights Institutions in the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of the Child, U.N. Doc. CRC/GC/2002/2 (Nov.15, 2002).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 15: The Right to Water (Arts. 11 and 12), U.N. Doc. E/C.12/2002/11 (Jan.20, 2003).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 5: General measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, U.N. Doc. CRC/GC/2003/5 (Mar.10, 2003).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding Observations: Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc CRC/C/15/Add.197 (Mar. 18,2003).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommandation on the organization of work, 32th Sess., U.N. Doc. CRC/C/124, (Jun.23, 2003).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Second periodic reports of States parties: Japan, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/104/Add.2 (Jul. 24,2003).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Second periodic reports of States parties: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/65/Add.24(Nov.5,2003).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Japan, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.231 (Feb.26, 2004).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Report on the 34th Sess., U.N. Doc .CRC/C/133, (Jan.14, 2004).
U.N. Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 31: The nature of the general legal obligation imposed on States Parties to the Covenant, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.13 (May.26, 2004).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.239 (Jul.1, 2004).
U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 25: Temporary Special Measures (Art.4(1)), U.N. Doc. A/59/38 (2004).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 6: Treatment of Unaccompanied and Separated Children Outside their Country of Origin, U.N. Doc. CRC/GC/2005/6(Jan.9, 2005).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Periodic Report of State Parties: China, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/83/Add.91 (Jul.15, 2005).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 16: The Equal Right of Men and Women to the Enjoyment of All Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Art. 3 of the Covenant), U.N. Doc E/C.12/2005/4 (Aug.11, 2005).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Treaty-specific guidelines regarding the form and content of periodic reports to be submitted by States parties under article 44, paragraph 1 (b), U.N. Doc. CRC/C/58/Rev.1(Nov.9, 2005).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: China, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/CHN/CO/2 (Nov. 24, 2005).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 18: The Right to Work (Art. 6), U.N. Doc. E/C.12/GC/18 (Feb.6, 2006).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 8: The Right of the Child to Protection from Corporal Punishment and Other Cruel or Degrading Forms of Punishment (Arts. 19; 28(2) and 37, inter alia), U.N. Doc. CRC/C/GC/8 (Feb.3, 2007).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 9: The rights of children with disabilities, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/GC/9 (Feb.27, 2007).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 10: Children''s Rights in Juvenile Justice, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/GC/10 (Apr.25, 2007).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, The combined third and fourth periodic reports of States parties: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/PRK/4 (Jan. 15,2008).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 19: The right to social security (Art. 9), U.N. Doc. E/C.12/GC/19 (Feb.4, 2008).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 11: Indigenous children and their rights, General comment No. 11 (Jan.30, 2009).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/PRK/CO/4 (Mar.27, 2009).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 20: Non-discrimination in economic, social and cultural rights (art. 2(2)), U.N. Doc. E/C.12/GC/20 (Jul.2, 2009).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 12: The right of the child to be heard(Art.12), U.N.Doc. CRC/C/GC/12(Jul.20, 2009).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Third periodic report of States parties: Japan, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/JPN/3 (Sep. 25,2009).
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 21: Right of everyone to take part in cultural life (Art. 15), U.N. Doc. E/C.12/GC/21 (Dec.21, 2009).
U.N. General Assembly, Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children, U.N. Doc. A/RES/64/142 (Feb.24, 2010).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding Observations: Japan, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/JPN/3 (Jun.20, 2010).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Third and fourth periodic reports of States parties: China, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/CHN/3-4(Jul.16, 2010).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Treaty-specific guidelines regarding the form and content of periodic reports to be submitted by States parties under article 44, paragraph 1 (b), U.N. Doc. CRC/C/58/Rev.2 (Nov.25, 2010).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Rules of procedure, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/4/Rev.2 (Dec.9, 2010).
U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 28: on the Core Obligations of States Parties (Art.2), U.N. Doc.CEDAW/C/2010/47/GC (2010).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Consolidated third and fourth periodic reports of States parties: Republic of Korea, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/KOR/3-4 (Jan.5, 2011).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 13: The right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/GC/13 (Apr.18, 2011).
U.N. Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 34: Freedoms of opinion and expression (art.19), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/GC/34 (Sep.12, 2011).
Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure, G.A. Res. 66/138, Annex, U.N. Doc. A/RES/66/138/Annex (Jan.27, 2012).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 15: on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (Art.24), U.N. Doc. CRC/C/GC/15 (Apr.17, 2013).

七、英文專書(依姓氏字母排序)
Bueren, G.V. (1998), International Documents on Children, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Bueren, G.V.(1995), The International Law on the Rights of the Child , Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers..
Detrick, S.(1992), The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: A Guide to the” Travaux preparatoires” , Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Neary, I. (2002), Human Rights in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, London: Routledge.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)(2009), Celebrating 20 Years of the Convention on the Rights of Child, New York:Brodock Press.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)(2007), Implementation Handbook for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, New York:Brodock Press.

八、英文期刊與專書論文(依姓氏字母排序)
Agyepong, T. (2010), Children Left Behind Bars: Sullivan, Graham, and Juvenile Life without Parole Sentences, Journal of International Human Rights 9(1), 83-102.
Doek, J. E. (2002), The U.N Convention on the Rights of the Child: Some Observations on the Monitering and Social Context of its Implementation, University of Florida Journal of Law & Public Policy 14, 125-136.
Freeman, M. (1997), Introduction: Children as Persons, in Freeman, M.(ed), Children’s Rights: A Comparative Perspective (pp.1-7), Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing.
Hammarberg, T. (1990), The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and How to Make It Work, Human Rights Quarterly 12, 97-105.
Jimmerson, J. (1990) , Female Infanticide in China: An Examination of Cultural and Legal Norms, UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal 8, 47-79.
Lee, B. J. (2007), Adoption in Korea: current status and future prospects, International Journal of Social Welfare 16(1), 75-77.
Marginson,S. (2011), The Confucian Model of higher education in East Asia and Singapore, in Marginson,S. (ed.), Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific, (pp.53-75), New York: springer.
O''Flaherty, M. (2006), The Concluding Observations of United Nations Human Rights Treaty Bodies, Human Rights Law Review 6(1), 27-52.
Qvortrup, J. (1996), Monitoring Childhood: Its Social, Economic and Political Features, in Verellen, E.(ed), Monitoring Childrent Rights, (pp.33-48), Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Quennerstedt, A. (2010), Children, But Not Really Humans? Critical Reflections on the Hampering Effect of the "3 p''s", The International Journal of Children’s Rights 18(4), 619-635.
Sardenberg, M. (1996), Committee on the Rights of the Child: Basic Processes , 6 Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems 6 ,264-285.
Vega, C.D.L, Leighton, M.(2008), Sentencing Our Children to Die in Prison, University of San Francisco Law Review 42(4), 983-1044.

九、媒體報導(依報導順序)
黃玉芳(2008年3月29日)。升學苦!3成國中生曾想自殺。聯合新聞網。取自http://mag.udn.com/mag/campus/storypage.jsp?f_ART_ID=117946
中新網(2010年7月22日)。女足世青賽 朝鮮隊輸球集體跪地接受主帥體罰。中新網。取自http://www.hi.chinanews.com/hnnew/2010-07-22/88562.html.
新華網(2011年01月21日)。南韓老師體罰學生 招式五花八門。新華網。取自http://big5.china.cn/v/news/2011-02/21/content_21967736.htm
鄭宇謙(2012年11月21日)。人本基金會:9成中小學有體罰。聯合新聞網。取自http://mag.udn.com/mag/campus/storypage.jsp?f_ART_ID=425485
讀賣新聞(2013年1月8日)。日本每年有400名教職員因體罰遭到處分。教育部電子報。取自http://epaper.edu.tw/windows.aspx?windows_sn=12202
東森聯合新聞網(2013年1月20日)。做實驗失敗日本「鐵血教師」逼學生喝稀釋鹽酸。東森聯合新聞網。取自http://www.ettoday.net/news/20130120/154929.htm#ixzz2QVSdJjxq
台灣立報(2013年4月4日)。體罰 台灣小孩幸福殺手。新浪新聞網。取自http://news.sina.com.tw/article/20130404/9307150.html

十、參考網站
監察院網站:http://www.cy.gov.tw/
內政部兒童局網站:http://www.cbi.gov.tw/CBI_2/internet/main/index.aspx
國民教育社群網:http://teach.eje.edu.tw/9CC2/9cc_97.php.
全國兒童及少年國是會議網站:http://children100.syis.com.tw/youth/index.aspx
台灣兒童暨家庭扶助基金會網站:http://www.ccf.org.tw/?action=ourservices_domestic&class_id=4
法務部人權大步走專區:http://www.humanrights.moj.gov.tw/mp200.html
中國社會福利網網站:http://shfl.mca.gov.cn/
全國法規資料庫:http://law.moj.gov.tw/
法務部:http://www.moj.gov.tw/site/moj/public/MMO/moj/stat/%20monthly/t5-30.pdf
司法院統計處:http: //www.judicial.gov.tw/juds/index1.htm
United Nations Development
Programme :http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home.html
The Human Development Report http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/about/ (2013/06/18).
U.N. Huamn Rights Committee: General Comment. Retrieved from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrc/comments.htm
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: General Comment. Retrieved from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cescr/comments.htm
U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: General Recommendations. Retrieved from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/comments.htm
U.N. Committee on the rights of the Child: General Comment. Retrieved from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/comments.htm
U.N. Committee on the rights of the Child: General Discussion Days. Retrieved from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/discussion2013.htm
U.N. Committee on the rights of the Child: Sate Parties Reports. Retrieved from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/sessions.htm
U.N. Committee on the rights of the Child: Concluding Observations. Retrieved from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/sessions.htm
United Nations Treaty Collection: Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved from http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-11&chapter=4&lang=en
United Nations Treaty Collection: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict. Retrieved from http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-11-b&chapter=4&lang=en
United Nations Treaty Collection: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography. Retrived from http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-11-c&chapter=4&lang=en.
United Nations Treaty Collection: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure. Retrieved from http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-11-d&chapter=4&lang=en.


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1. 鄧學仁(2013),〈子女福利與親權法的課題〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,216期,頁102-118。
2. 廖福特(2007),〈國際人權法:第二講 最具普世性的三個人權條約─種族、婦女及兒童〉,《月旦法學教室》,56期,頁56-69。
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