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研究生:葉淳逸
研究生(外文):Chun-Yi Yeh
論文名稱:寄生性後生動物與大眼鯛之寄生關係以及系群區分之應用
論文名稱(外文):Parasitism between parasitic metazoan and the big eye Priacanthus macracanthus with regard to the application of stock identification
指導教授:施秀惠
指導教授(外文):Hsiu-Hui Shih
口試委員:王俊順冉繁華
口試委員(外文):Chun-Shun WangFan-Hua Nan
口試日期:2013-07-05
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:動物學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:大眼鯛生物標籤系群區分
外文關鍵詞:Priacanthus macracanthusBiological indicatorsStock identification
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大眼鯛(Priacanthus macracanthus)為臺灣漁業經濟魚種之一,由於近年來大量捕撈,已造成產量長期下滑之趨勢。本研究期望藉由生物性標籤探討臺灣周圍海域之大眼鯛系群,進一步達到漁業資源管理之目的。因此首先查明大眼鯛寄生蟲相;其次選擇理想蟲種做為生物性標籤,並將大眼鯛之生理因子包括:魚齡、性別、肝臟指數及生殖腺指數與寄生蟲感染參數進行統計分析,藉此推論臺灣周圍海域之大眼鯛系群。
本研究為首次以寄生蟲做為生物標籤,進行臺灣近海大眼鯛系群區分。自2011年10月至2013年4月,分別由宜蘭縣大溪漁港及屏東縣東港漁港取得臺灣東北及西南海域分布的大眼鯛樣本。而大眼鯛寄生蟲相主要包括12種,分屬於圓形動物、扁形動物、節肢動物等三個動物門。圓形動物門含四種:典型海獸胃線蟲(Anisakis typica)、派氏海獸胃線蟲(Anisakis pegreffii)、有鉤宮脂線蟲(Hysterothylacium aduncum)、帶魚針蛔線蟲(Raphidascaris trichiuri);五種扁形動物複殖吸蟲亞綱:細偽類孔吸蟲(Pseudopecoeloides tenuis)、海南合體雙吸蟲(Syncorpozoum hainanensis)、大眼鯛指腺吸蟲(Lecithochiriump priacanthi)、動殖科吸蟲Dupliciporia lantern、牛首屬吸蟲(Bucephalus sp.);節肢動物門甲殼綱橈足亞綱有兩種:魚虱(Caligus absens)、人形魚虱(Norion priacanthi),軟甲亞綱等足目動物一種:尖甲水虱(Nerocila sp.)。上列寄生蟲有5種為寄主新紀錄,除魚虱、人形魚虱外,其餘皆為為地理新紀錄。再根據感染之盛行率(prevalence)、平均感染強度(mean intensity)與平均豐富度(abundance)之高低等參數,嘗試選擇2種海獸胃線蟲屬圓蟲、有鉤宮脂線蟲、細偽類孔吸蟲、魚虱(Caligus absens)及人形魚虱(Norion priacanthi)作為研究大眼鯛系群之生物性標籤並探討與大眼鯛生理因子之關係。
此外,針對盛行率最高之細偽類孔吸蟲,增幅其ITS-1, 5.8 S以及 ITS-2等核糖體基因,得到1180 bp DNA片段,並將完整5.8 S以及 ITS-2序列與NCBI資料庫數據比對,除了作為鑑定此物種之分子分類依據外,亦有助於解析孔腸科複殖吸蟲之親緣演化。


目錄
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
中文摘要 X
英文摘要 XI
壹、 前言 1
一、 臺灣海洋資源 1
二、 寄生關係 2
三、 海魚寄生蟲之應用與特點 4
四、 系群(stock)區分 5
五、 大眼鯛(bigeye)簡介 7
六、 研究目的 11
貳、 材料與方法 12
一、 樣品取得 12
二、 樣品處理 12
三、 安尼線蟲科圓蟲分類 14
四、 複殖吸蟲之鑑定 18
五、 資料分析 19
參、 結果 20
一、 大眼鯛寄生蟲相查明 20
二、 大眼鯛生理指數分析 24
三、 大眼鯛寄生蟲感染參數分析 24
四、 寄生蟲生物標籤之選用 30
五、 感染參數綜合分析 31
六、 以PCR-RFLP鑑別海獸胃線蟲屬圓蟲第三期幼蟲 35
七、 細偽類孔吸蟲ITS片段之分析 35
八、 大眼鯛系群區分 37
肆、 討論 38
一、 大眼鯛之寄生蟲相分析 38
二、 寄生蟲作為生物性標籤探討 39
三、 臺灣近海大眼鯛系群探討 40
四、 寄生蟲感染參數與環境及大眼鯛生理指數之綜合探討 41
五、 寄生蟲感染與環境之關係探討 46
六、 細偽類孔吸蟲rDNA探討 47
伍、 參考文獻 49

表目錄
表1 大眼鯛之寄生蟲相 59
表2 東北樣本組大眼鯛之生理指數 60
表3 西南樣本組大眼鯛之生理指數 61
表4 臺灣海域典型海獸胃線蟲之感染參數比較 62
表5 臺灣海域派氏海獸胃線蟲之感染參數比較 63
表6 臺灣海域有鉤宮脂線蟲之感染參數比較 64
表7 臺灣海域帶魚針蛔線蟲之感染參數比較 65
表8 臺灣海域細偽類孔吸蟲之感染參數比較 66
表9 臺灣海域海南合體雙吸蟲之感染參數比較 67
表10 臺灣海域大眼鯛指腺吸蟲之感染參數比較 68
表11 臺灣海域Dupliciporia lantern之感染參數比較 69
表12 臺灣海域牛首屬吸蟲之感染參數比較 70
表13 臺灣海域魚虱感染參數比較 71
表14 臺灣海域人形魚虱之感染參數比較 72
表15 臺灣海域尖甲水虱之感染參數比較 73
表16 兩採樣點之寄生蟲綜合參數比較 74
表17 大眼鯛年齡與細偽類孔吸蟲之感染參數比較 75
表18 大眼鯛年齡與典型海獸胃線蟲之感染參數比較 76
表19 大眼鯛年齡與有鉤宮脂線蟲之感染參數比較 77
表20 大眼鯛年齡與魚虱之感染參數比較 78
表21 大眼鯛年齡與人形魚虱之感染參數比較 79
表22 大眼鯛性別與標籤寄生蟲之感染參數比較 80
表23 大眼鯛GSI與細偽類孔吸蟲之感染參數比較 81
表24 大眼鯛GSI與典型海獸胃線蟲之感染參數比較 82
表25 大眼鯛GSI與有鉤宮脂線蟲之感染參數比較 83
表26 大眼鯛GSI與魚虱之感染參數比較 84
表27 大眼鯛GSI與人形魚虱之感染參數比較 85
表28 大眼鯛HSI與細偽類孔吸蟲之感染參數比較 86
表29 大眼鯛HSI與典型海獸胃線蟲之感染參數比較 87
表30 大眼鯛HSI與有鉤宮脂線蟲之感染參數比較 88
表31 大眼鯛HSI與魚虱之感染參數比較 89
表32 大眼鯛HSI與人形魚虱之感染參數比較 90
表33 臺灣海域之大眼鯛樣本海獸胃線蟲屬圓蟲發生頻度 91

圖目錄
圖1. 近二十年短尾大眼鯛產量統計圖 9
圖2. 臺灣周圍海域大眼鯛採樣地點 92
圖3. 大眼鯛尾叉長(Fork length,FL)測量圖 93
圖4. 3種安尼線蟲科圓蟲第三期幼蟲之消化道形態特徵 94
圖5. 細偽類孔吸蟲(Pseudopecoeloides tenuis) 95
圖6. 海南合體雙吸蟲(Syncorpozoum hainanensis) 96
圖7. 大眼鯛指腺吸蟲(Lecithochiriump priacanthi) 97
圖8. 動殖科吸蟲(Zoogonidae) Dupliciporia lantern 98
圖9. 牛首屬吸蟲(Bucephalus sp.) 99
圖10. 魚虱(Caligus absens) 100
圖11. 人形魚虱(Norion priacanthi) 101
圖12. 尖甲水虱(Nerocila sp.) 102
圖13. 大眼鯛體長(尾叉長)與體重之迴歸分析 103
圖14. 東北海域大眼鯛生理指數之月別變化 104
圖15. 細偽類孔吸蟲平均豐富度與大眼鯛生理參數之相關性 105
圖16. 兩種海獸胃線蟲平均豐富度與大眼鯛生理參數之相關性 106
圖17. 有鉤宮脂線蟲平均豐富度與大眼鯛生理參數之相關性 107
圖18. 魚虱平均豐富度與大眼鯛生理參數之相關性 108
圖19. 人形魚虱平均豐富度與大眼鯛生理參數之相關性 109
圖20. 兩種海獸胃線蟲屬圓蟲第三期幼蟲之PCR-RFLP電泳圖 110
圖21. 細偽類孔吸蟲rDNA之PCR電泳圖 111
圖22. 細偽類孔吸蟲5.8S及ITS-2序列比較 112
圖23. 細偽類孔吸蟲之親緣分析 113

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